NanoMAX is a hard x-ray nanoimaging beamline at the new Swedish synchrotron radiation source MAX IV that became operational in 2016. Being a beamline dedicated to x-ray nanoimaging in both 2D and 3D, NanoMAX is the first to take full advantage of MAX IVs exceptional low emittance and resulting coherent properties. We present results from the first experiments at NanoMAX that took place in December 2016. These did not use the final experimental stations that will become available to users, but a temporary arrangement including zone plate and order-sorting aperture stages and a piezo-driven sample scanner. We used zone plates with outermost zone widths of 100 nm and 30 nm and performed experiments at 8 keV photon energy for x-ray absorption and fluorescence imaging and ptychography. Moreover, we investigated stability and coherence with a Ronchi test method. Despite the rather simple setup, we could demonstrate spatial resolution below 50 nm after only a few hours of beamtime. The results showed that the beamline is working as expected and experiments approaching the 10 nm resolution level or below should be possible in the future.
The core-shell nanowires have the promise to become the future building blocks of light emitting diodes, solar cells and quantum computers. The high surface to volume ratio allows efficient elastic strain relaxation, making it possible to combine a wider range of materials into the heterostructures as compared to the traditional, planar geometry. As a result, the strain fields appear in both the core and the shell of the nanowires, which can affect the device properties. The hard x-ray nanoprobe is a tool that enables a nondestructive mapping of the strain and tilt distributions where other techniques cannot be applied. By measuring the positions of the Bragg peaks for each point on the sample we can evaluate the values of local tilt and strain. In this paper we demonstrate the detailed strain mapping of the strained InGaN/GaN core-shell nanowire. We observe an asymmetric strain distribution in the GaN core caused by an uneven shell relaxation. Additionally, we analyzed the local micro-tilt distribution, which shows the edge effects at the top and bottom of the nanowire. The measurements were compared to the finite element modelling and show a good agreement.
We describe the design of the NanoMAX beamline to be built among the first phase beamlines of the MAX IV facility in
Lund, Sweden. NanoMAX will be a hard X-ray imaging beamline providing down to 10 nm in direct spatial resolution,
enabling investigations of very small heterogeneous samples exploring methods of diffraction, scattering, absorption,
phase contrast and fluorescence. The beamline will have two experimental stations using Fresnel zone plates and
Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics for beam focusing, respectively. This paper focuses on the optical design of the beamline
excluding the experimental stations but also describes general ideas about the endstations and the nano-focusing optics to
be used. The NanoMAX beamline is planned to be operational late 2016.
We report on a quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetector (DWELL QDIP) grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. The DWELL QDIP consisted of ten stacked InAs/In<sub>0.15</sub>Ga<sub>0.85</sub>As/GaAs QD layers embedded between n-doped contact layers. The density of the QDs was about 9 x 10<sup>10</sup> cm<sup>-2</sup> per QD layer. The energy level structure of the DWELL was revealed by optical measurements of interband transitions, and from a comparison with this energy level scheme the origin of the photocurrent peaks could be identified. The main intersubband transition contributing to the photocurrent was associated with the quantum dot ground state to the quantum well excited state transition. The performance of the DWELL QDIPs was evaluated regarding responsivity and dark current for temperatures between 15 K and 77 K. The photocurrent spectrum was dominated by a LWIR peak, with a peak wavelength at 8.4 μm and a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 1.1 μm. At an operating temperature of 65 K, the peak responsivity was 30 mA/W at an applied bias of 4 V and the dark current was 1.2×10<sup>-5</sup> A/cm<sup>2</sup>. Wavelength tuning from 8.4 μm to 9.5 μm was demonstrated, by reversing the bias of the detector.