We present and discuss Talbot mask-aligner lithography, relying on a continuous wave laser emitting at 193nm for the illumination. In this source, a diode laser at 772nm is amplified by a tapered amplifier in master-oscillator power-amplifier configuration and frequency-quadrupled in two subsequent enhancement cavities using lithium triborate and potassium fluoro-beryllo-borate nonlinear crystals to generate the emission at 193 nm. The high coherence and brilliance of such an illumination source is predestined for plane wave mask-aligner illumination, crucial in particular for high-resolution lithographic techniques such as Talbot lithography and phase-shift masks. Talbot lithography takes advantage of the diffraction effect to image periodic mask features via self-replication in multiples of the Talbot distance behind the photomask when exposed by a plane wave. By placing a photoresistcoated wafer in one of the Talbot planes, the mask pattern is replicated in the resist. Periodic patterns with diverse shapes are required for wire grid polarizers, diffraction gratings, and hole arrays in photonic applications as well as for filters and membranes. Using an amplitude mask with periodic structures, we demonstrate here with such a technique sub-micron feature sizes for various designs at a proximity gap of 20 µm.
We introduce a novel industrial grade 193nm continuous-wave laser light source for proximity mask-aligner lithography. A diode seed laser in master-oscillator power-amplification configuration is frequency-quadrupled using lithiumtriborate and potassium-uoro-beryllo-borate non-linear crystals. The large coherence-length of this monomodal laser is controlled by static and rotating shaped random diffusers. Beam shaping with imaging and non-imaging homogenizers realized with diffractive and refractive micro-optical elements is compared in simulation and measurement. We demonstrate resolution patterns offering resolutions <2 µm printed with proximity gaps of 20 µm.
We present a novel industrial-grade prototype version of a continuous-wave 193 nm laser system entirely based on solid state pump laser technology. Deep-ultraviolet emission is realized by frequency-quadrupling an amplified diode laser and up to 20 mW of optical power were generated using the nonlinear crystal KBBF. We demonstrate the lifetime of the laser system for different output power levels and environmental conditions. The high stability of our setup was proven in > 500 h measurements on a single spot, a crystal shifter multiplies the lifetime to match industrial requirements. This laser improves the relative intensity noise, brilliance, wall-plug efficiency and maintenance cost significantly. We discuss first lithographic experiments making use of this improvement in photon efficiency.
We report on the design, fabrication and measurement of travelling-wave superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) integrated with polycrystalline diamond photonic circuits. We analyze their performance both in the near-infrared wavelength regime around 1600 nm and at 765 nm. Near-IR detection is important for compatibility with the telecommunication infrastructure, while operation in the visible wavelength range is relevant for compatibility with the emission line of silicon vacancy centers in diamond which can be used as efficient single-photon sources. Our detectors feature high critical currents (up to 31 μA) and high performance in terms of efficiency (up to 74% at 765 nm), noise-equivalent power (down to 4.4×10<sup>-19</sup> W/Hz<sup>1/2</sup> at 765 nm) and timing jitter (down to 23 ps).