Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of blood plasma on an electrochemically prepared silver surface has been studied as a label-free, noninvasive diagnostic test for colorectal cancer. Indium tin oxide glass substrates were modified with 0.01 mol dm − 3 silver nitrate using the pulsed double-potentiostatic method. The prepared silver substrates were tested with Rhodamine 6G as a model analyte and the surface with the highest signal enhancement was selected. This silver dendritic surface was used as a diagnostic substrate for SERS measurements of human blood plasma. A group of oncological patients with declared colorectal carcinoma (n = 15) and the control group of healthy volunteers (n = 15) were compared. The biomolecular changes in chemical composition in the cancer samples were detected by statistical processing of the resulting SERS spectra. About 94% specificity and 100% sensitivity were achieved for the analysis by the ratio of the SERS peak intensity at 725 cm − 1 for adenine to the peak intensity at 638 cm − 1 for tyrosine and 100% specificity and sensitivity by using principal component analysis. This method of SERS diagnostics of colorectal cancer, which does not require the nanoparticle preparation, mixing, and incubation of plasma with a colloidal solution as in conventional tests, is a rapid, inexpensive method, which could be introduced as a primary diagnostic test.