HARMONI is the E-ELT’s first light visible and near-infrared integral field spectrograph. It will provide four different spatial scales, ranging from coarse spaxels of 60 × 30 mas best suited for seeing limited observations, to 4 mas spaxels that Nyquist sample the diffraction limited point spread function of the E-ELT at near-infrared wavelengths. Each spaxel scale may be combined with eleven spectral settings, that provide a range of spectral resolving powers (R ~3500, 7500 and 20000) and instantaneous wavelength coverage spanning the 0.5 – 2.4 μm wavelength range of the instrument. In autumn 2015, the HARMONI project started the Preliminary Design Phase, following signature of the contract to design, build, test and commission the instrument, signed between the European Southern Observatory and the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. Crucially, the contract also includes the preliminary design of the HARMONI Laser Tomographic Adaptive Optics system. The instrument’s technical specifications were finalized in the period leading up to contract signature. In this paper, we report on the first activity carried out during preliminary design, defining the baseline architecture for the system, and the trade-off studies leading up to the choice of baseline.
The tropospheric distribution of greenhouse gases (GHGs) depends on surface flux variations, atmospheric chemistry and transport processes over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Accurate and precise atmospheric concentration observations of GHGs can be used to infer surface flux estimates, though their interpretation relies on unbiased atmospheric transport models. GHOST is a novel, compact shortwave infrared spectrometer which will observe tropospheric columns of CO<sub>2</sub>, CO, CH<sub>4</sub> and H<sub>2</sub>O (along with the HDO/H<sub>2</sub>O ratio) during deployment on board the NASA Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle. The primary science objectives of GHOST are to: 1) test atmospheric transport models; 2) evaluate satellite observations of GHG column observations over oceans; and 3) complement in-situ tropopause transition layer observations from other Global Hawk instruments. GHOST comprises a target acquisition module (TAM), a fibre slicer and feed system, and a multiple order spectrograph. The TAM is programmed to direct solar radiation reflected by the ocean surface into a fibre optic bundle. Incoming light is then split into four spectral bands, selected to optimise remote observations of GHGs. The design uses a single grating and detector for all four spectral bands. We summarise the GHOST concept and its objectives, and describe the instrument design and proposed deployment aboard the Global Hawk platform.
The Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) hosts, starting in April 2012, the visible spectrograph HARPS-N. It is based
on the design of its predecessor working at ESO's 3.6m telescope, achieving unprecedented results on radial velocity
measurements of extrasolar planetary systems. The spectrograph's ultra-stable environment, in a temperature-controlled
vacuum chamber, will allow measurements under 1 m/s which will enable the characterization of rocky, Earth-like
planets. Enhancements from the original HARPS include better scrambling using octagonal section fibers with a shorter
length, as well as a native tip-tilt system to increase image sharpness, and an integrated pipeline providing a complete set
Observations in the Kepler field will be the main goal of HARPS-N, and a substantial fraction of TNG observing time
will be devoted to this follow-up. The operation process of the observatory has been updated, from scheduling
constraints to telescope control system. Here we describe the entire instrument, along with the results from the first
The European Space Agency, in the framework of its Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Programme, has
commissioned a study for a global network of surveillance telescopes to monitor the ever increasing number of objects in
Earth orbit. A possible scenario identified by the study is a network of 20 SSA Telescopes located at various observatory
sites. This paper presents the conceptual design of a telescope system optimised for wide field, short exposures and fast
tracking – all requirements of SSA.
The requirements of the SSA telescope will be presented followed by a brief review of potential telescope technologies.
Following a trade study analysis a 1 m compact Schmidt telescope design was chosen. This design provides a field of
view of 3.4 degrees diameter. The design is achromatic and covers the wavelength range 380 – 900 nm. The sensitivity
of the telescope is such that it can monitor the orbital parameters of objects as small as 1 cm in low Earth orbit. This is
equivalent to 17<sup>th</sup> magnitude in 0.07 seconds at a signal to noise ratio of 5. The telescope is mounted on an Altitude-
Azimuth type mount that enables wide coverage of the sky and fast tracking speeds. The entire telescope is contained
within a Calotte type enclosure. The camera, detector control, and telescope control system design will also be presented.
Systems engineering aspects will be addressed, with particular attention given to the analysis and flow-down of
requirements and a practical and pragmatic process of system-level design trade-offs.
This paper considers the development and progression of the VISTA telescope, from conception to the point where it is
now being operated by the scientific community (end user). It analyses and evaluates the value of effective project
management and systems engineering practices with practical examples. The practical application of systems
engineering is addressed throughout the requirement capture and management, design, manufacture, assembly, and
installation, integration, verification and acceptance phases, highlighting the value gained by appropriate application of
step-by-step procedures and tools. The special emphasis given to the importance of effective systems engineering during
on-site installation, verification and validation will be illustrated. Project management aspects are covered from
tendering and procurement through contractor management processes to final integration and commissioning, with great
emphasis placed on the importance of a "win-win" approach and the benefits of effective, constructive
customer/contractor liaison. Consideration is given to the details and practicalities of day-to-day site management,
safety, housekeeping, and the management and support of site personnel and services. Recommendations are made to
improve the effectiveness of UK ATC system engineering and project management so that future projects can benefit
from the lessons learned on VISTA.
VISTA is a 4-m wide field survey telescope with a near infra-red camera and a demanding f/1 primary design now well into its manufacturing phase. We contracted out major items, and generated a coordinated approach to the management of engineering budgets through systems engineering, risks through risk management, and safety through the generation of safety cases. Control of the interfaces and science requirements has been maintained and developed through the current phase. The project is developing the commissioning plan to deliver an effective and safe facility. The current status of VISTA is presented as we move towards the on site integration phase.
The Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) project started in 2000 following a Joint Infrastructure Fund award to a consortium of 18 Universities within the UK. The UK ATC was contracted to manage the project of developing and building the VISTA facility. VISTA is planned to be a 4-m class telescope with the ability to mount both a visible and infra-red cameras, not concurrently. The design has an F/1 primary resulting in some demanding design issues. The project has now entered its detailed design and manufacturing phase. As we have contracted out major items a coordinated approach to the management of budgets, through systems engineering, risks, through risk management, and safety, through the generation of safety cases, had to be generated. These have been developed through the current phase, and control of the interfaces and science requirements has been maintained. The project is further developing the systems engineering and safety management to generate the commissioning plan and the overall safety case. The plan to deliver an effective and safe survey facility to ESO is being maintained.
The high-performance nature of VISTA, the Visible & Infra-Red Survey Telescope for Astronomy, with its wide-field high-throughput f/1 optical design coupled with the multi-organisation, multi-disciplinary nature of the VISTA collaboration places significant demands on the project's Systems Engineering function. The project has relied heavily on a Systems Engineering approach, which has been vigorously applied throughout the conception, specification, and tendering stages of the project lifecycle, and is in place to be continued through the remaining phases of design & development, manufacture, assembly, commissioning, verification and acceptance.
As the project matures from the Requirements/Design phase towards the Development and Manufacturing phase, the current status of the VISTA project is illustrated in terms of its Systems Engineering aspects, along with examples of how a formal Systems Engineering approach has resulted in benefits to the important project parameters of performance, cost and schedule. Key tools such as engineering budgets, configuration control procedures and the approach to risk management will be discussed in terms of their value to the project.
With the award of the VISTA project to the United Kingdom Astronomy Technology Centre (UK ATC), the need for a formal systems approach and dedicated systems engineering management was identified as a key requirement for the success of that project. The structuring of projects within the UK ATC has been increasingly biased toward a systems engineering approach.
ROE projects such as CGS4, while very successful, were based on a traditional engineering discipline approach. The systems responsibility was split between the Project Scientist and the Project Manager. Such an approach can be made to work on internal projects where the entire team and project sponsor are in close proximity. As instrumentation projects have grown larger, become more complex and increasingly geographically distributed through international collaboration, the need for technical discipline enforced by a formal system engineering approach has correspondingly grown. Internal projects also benefit and are becoming increasingly reliant on systems engineering as a means to mitigating both schedule and budget risks. This paper describes and analyses the ongoing introduction of a formal systems approach within the UK ATC. Structuring of projects through a sub-system approach rather than by discipline, formal requirements capture, traceability and the use of systems tools to monitor performance are described. The introduction of systems engineering as a discipline is discussed and progress to date reported. Systems engineering activities in previous projects and ongoing implementation in current projects are analysed. Lessons learnt are described and future development in the systems approach outlined.