We investigate possible use of terahertz (THz) waves for medical ultrasound technique that can produce enhanced
contrast and resolution for achieving high quality and accuracy of biological tissues and human organs imaging for
medical applications. The use of THz is particularly suited for this application since THz waves radiate in tiny beams
that can focus high energy into micro tissues to produce large thermal-induced acoustic waves needed for enhanced
ultrasound imaging. The ability of confining radiation into tiny spots also makes THz well suited for certain technologies
such as endoscopic ultrasound to improve minimally invasive diagnostic medical procedures. We present two possible
systems for imaging biological samples and human body using a single source (or transmitter) that can generate THz waves at different frequencies concurrently along with multiple acoustic transducers and multiple antennas.
We discuss biomedical imaging using radio waves operating in the terahertz (THz) range between 300 GHz to 3 THz.
Particularly, we present the concept for two THz imaging systems. One system employs single antenna, transmitter and
receiver operating over multi-THz-frequency simultaneously for sensing and imaging small areas of the human body or
biological samples. Another system consists of multiple antennas, a transmitter, and multiple receivers operating over
multi-THz-frequency capable of sensing and imaging simultaneously the whole body or large biological samples. Using
THz waves for biomedical imaging promises unique and substantial medical benefits including extremely small medical devices, extraordinarily fine spatial resolution, and excellent contrast between images of diseased and healthy tissues. THz imaging is extremely attractive for detection of cancer in the early stages, sensing and imaging of tissues near the skin, and study of disease and its growth versus time.
We present a technique for measuring human's heart beat and blood flow. The technique is based on interferometry at
radio frequency (RF) and can produce very fine resolution and fast response. RF interferometry is a process detecting
the change of phase and capable of resolving any physical quantity being measured within a fraction of the operating
wavelength. It has relatively faster system response time than other techniques due to the fact that it is typically operated
with a single-frequency source rather than across a frequency range. In measurement of heart beat and blood flow in the
human body, a RF signal is used as the irradiating source and the change of the phase of the return signal over time is
detected in the signal processing. This phase change is processed to extract the Doppler frequency shift used for
calculating the heart beat or blood flow. Accurate wireless non-contact measurement of human's heart beat and blood
flow with RF interferometry will advance the practice of medicine and promise substantial benefits to patients and
We present a technique for biomedical imaging without radiation. The technique is based on the principles of thermal
radiation and RF radiometry, which can be used to generate tomographic images for medical diagnosis such as early
detection of breast cancer. Thermal radiation refers to the blackbody radiation emitted by matter, which extends all
through the electromagnetic spectrum. By wirelessly measuring this thermal radiation transmitted by the patient's body
and internal tissues at RF frequencies using RF radiometry, a mapping of the temperature distribution can be established,
from which information such as images of the body and internal tissues can be formed. Biomedical imaging using RF
radiometry is valuable for biomedical imaging applications as it promises to retain the full benefits of RF imaging
without exposing patients to radiation, thus benefiting not only patients but also health-care professionals and industries.
We present several techniques utilizing radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for personal health monitoring.
One technique involves using RFID sensors external to the human body, while another technique uses both internal and
external RFID sensors. Simultaneous monitoring of many patients in a hospital setting can also be done using networks
of RFID sensors. All the monitoring are done wirelessly, either continuously or periodically in any interval, in which the
sensors collect information on human parts such as the lungs or heart and transmit this information to a router, PC or
PDA device connected to the internet, from which patient's condition can be diagnosed and viewed by authorized
medical professionals in remote locations. Instantaneous information allows medical professionals to intervene properly
and timely to prevent possible catastrophic effects to patients. The continuously monitored information provides medical
professionals more complete and long-term studies of patients. All of these result in not only enhancement of the health
treatment quality but also significant reduction of medical expenditure. These techniques demonstrate that health
monitoring of patients can be done wirelessly at any time and any place without interfering with the patients' normal
activities. Implementing the RFID technology would not only help reduce the enormous and significantly growing
medical costs in the U.S.A., but also help improve the health treatment capability as well as enhance the understanding
of long-term personal health and illness.