As known, Kumakhov optics, or polycapillary optics, is based on the effective passage of X-ray radiation through the bundles of monocapillaries of various configurations; the latter takes place due to the phenomenon of total external reflection of X-rays from the inner capillary walls. In our work the basic characteristics of intense quasi-parallel X-ray polycapillary microbeams from a laboratory source in a scheme of microfocus X-ray tube/polycapillary structure, are investigated theoretically as well as experimentally. Experimental studies are carried out by means of a special
automated stand. The received experimental data are compared with the results of computer statistical modeling. Modeling includes of the several theoretical models for various types of deviations of a reflection surface from ideal such as the roughness, waviness and bending. The effect of decrease of full divergence of microbeams near the exit end face of polycapillary system (quasi-decrease of divergence) is found out. But, unlike the observable effects of decrease of local divergence, proposed and discovered in works of Dabagov et al. and described on the base of surface channeling,
the given effect can be well enough described within the limits of geometrical optics. Now on the base of Kumakhov optics at the Institute for Roentgen Optics the new generation of devices is developed and created: "laboratory synchrotron", fluorescent spectrometers, reflectometers, diffractometers, X-ray microscopes and combinations of several devices in one.
For the first time the scheme of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy is realized on the basis of polycapillary Kumakhov optics and the raster microfocus x-ray source. X-ray microbeam with high density flux is created by scanning of a focal spot on the tube target area; polycapillary structure is stationary fixed at the tube outlet. Results of using the tubes with transmission and reflection anodes are submitted. Besides the similar raster system allows to realize express alignment procedure and to estimate the spot size of Kumakhov optics.
Essentially new approach to the x-ray microscopy, based on application cone-shaped polycapillary structure of Kumakhov optics is described. The given approach allows on the basis of usual middle-focus source to receiveimages of shadow objects with the resolution about 1 μm. In addition it is possible to receive images of self-luminous objects with the same resolution. The description of experimental installation and results of researching of shadow and self-luminous objects is submitted. First results of the image computer processing with the purpose of elimination polycapillary grid are also presented.