From an optical point of view, turbid media like waste water and water in aquacultures are strongly scattering media. The measuring method presented is based on the determination of the optical parameters <i>μ</i><i><sub>s</sub></i> (scattering coefficient), <i>μ</i><i><sub>a</sub></i> (absorption coefficient) and the anisotropy factor (<i>g</i>), which had originally been developed for the so-called tissue optics in medicine. Double integrating spheres were redesigned for mobile monitoring of optical parameters. A prototype was tested for measuring the change of the absorption of yeast cells with concentration.
Conducting polyaniline (PANi) and their composite nanoparticles were synthesized by both electrochemical and chemical methods. In electrochemical method, PANi and its composite were electro-synthesized in acidic medium (sulphuric acid and oxalic acid) on iron by cyclic voltammetry technique. In chemical method, PANi and its composite were polymerised by a self-assembly method using ammonium peroxydisulfate as an oxydant under supersonic stirring in aqueous medium. The obtained PANi product was characterised by Infra-Red and Raman spectroscopies. The nanostructure of PANi was examined by using Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopes. The results obtained in electrochemical method shown that PAni nanoparticles could be archived by transformation from its traditional fibrous structure using a bulky dopant as organic acid (oxalic acid), an oxydable subtract (iron) and an additional less electro-active monomer (diamino-naphthalene : DAN). The nano-size of PANi particles synthetized in chemical method could be controlled by using supersonic stirring conditions and participation of additional metallic oxide particles (ZnO).
Fe-SBA-15 was successfully synthesized by hydrothermal treatment in one step . Different techniques such as XRD, BET, HRTEM, UV-vis have been used to characterize the Fe-SBA-15 samples. Obtained results have shown that the obtained Fe-SBA-15 samples have highly ordered hexagonal mesostructure with large pore size of about 64Å. Most Fe species in the Fe-SBA-15 were tetrahedrally coordinated. The sample exhibited high stability by calcination at high temperature to remove the template. The Fe-SBA-15 catalysts were tested in catalytic oxidation of phenol and photocatalytic oxidation of chlorophenol. The results indicated that Fe-SBA-15 exhibited the high catalytic activity in these reactions.