Optical switch is one of key supporting technologies in all-optical-network (AON). And electrostatic MOEMS (Micro-Optical-Electro-Mechanical Systems) switch plays a very important role in all the researched switches, because of their excellent features, including low insertion, low crosstalk and scalability. But the packaging technology has been limiting the development of optical switch. In this paper, the authors study the laser beam propagating during the free space and select collimator, design the pedestal to packaging and address aspects of the insertion loss that are most important loss mechanisms for the 2D cross-connect switch.
We study insertion losses of optical switch when the laser beam is propagating during the free space between two single mode fibers (SMFs) and the related assemblage challenges; Then a new packaging structure is developed for the hybrid-integration of free-space MOEMS (micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems) chip with a silicon micromachined submount to improve alignment accuracy. The submount is designed to accommodate various free-space MOEMS chips with minimal active optical alignment, thus reducing the packaging cost. The silicon submount has a central recess to place the MOEMS chip in, sixteen V-grooves for optical fibers, and micropits for micro ball lenses, all bulk micromachined at the same time by a single anisotropic wet etching step. A corner compensation technique is employed to prevent erosion of the convex corners, where different geometries meet. Through this assembling method, the fiber, micro ball lens can be aligned preciously thus reduced lateral and angular misalignment between them. Then total insertion losses can be decreased.
A theoretical method of focusing X-rays by the compound X-ray refractive lens is presented in this paper. The authors report their resent theoretical results including the material selection and structure parameters for such a device. As an example, a compound X-ray refractive lens with PMMA material is designed. The detailed fabrication process of the PMMA compound lens by LIGA technology is described. Moreover, some measured results by means of SEM are also shown. The structure height of one of the PMMA compound lens is measured to be 500μm.
In the present paper, a mask structure called adhering mask for excimer laser ablation is introduced. This mask is fabricated directly on the etched material, so it needn't a supporting chip and it thus has high transmission. Its absorber is made of gold and is fabricated by UV LIGA technology. Therefore the mask has more accurate structure and more smooth edges. This mask can fulfill the direct etching of the polymers by using a simpler optical system and can be a method of the mass production to some extent. The other mask is developed for X-ray lithography. It is made by UV LIGA process too. It consists of the substrate, the absorber and the supporter. The substrate is made of PI and the absorber is prepared by gold. The structure, fabrication process and experiment results of this mask are given.