Present study is looking at the problem of integrating drug delivery microcapsule, a bio-sensor, and a control mechanism into a biomedical drug delivery system. A wide range of medical practices from cancer therapy to gastroenterological treatments can benefit from such novel bio-system. Drug release in our drug delivery system is achieved by electrochemically actuating an array of polymeric valves on a set of drug reservoirs. The valves are bi-layer structures, made in the shape of a flap hinged on one side to a valve seat, and consisting of thin films of evaporated gold and electrochemically deposited polypyrrole (PPy). These thin PPy(DBS) bi-layer flaps cover access holes of underlying chambers micromachined in a silicon substrate. Chromium and polyimide layers are applied to implement "differential adhesion" to obtain a voltage induced deflection of the bilayer away from the drug reservoir. The Cr is an adhesion-promoting layer, which is used to strongly bind the gold layer down to the substrate, whereas the gold adheres weakly to polyimide. Drug actives (dry or wet) were pre-stored in the chambers and their release is achieved upon the application of a small bias (~ 1V). Negative voltage causes cation adsorption and volume change in PPy film. This translates into the bending of the PPy/Au bi-layer actuator and release of the drug from reservoirs. This design of the drug delivery module is miniaturized to the dimensions of 200μm valve diameter. Galvanostatic and potentiostatic PPy deposition methods were compared, and potentiostatic deposition method yields film of more uniform thickness. PPy deposition experiments with various pyrrole and NaDBS concentrations were also performed. Glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase (GOx) embedded in the PPy matrix during elechtrochemical deposition was manufactured and successfully tested. Multiple-drug pulsatile release and continuous linear release patterns can be implemented by controlling the operation of an array of valves. Varying amounts of drugs, together with more complex controlling strategies would allow creation of more complex drug delivery patterns.
The most common methods for the drug delivery are swallowing pills or receiving injections. However, formulations that control the rate and period of medicine (i.e., time-release medications) are still problematic. The proposed implantable devices which include batteries, sensors, telemetry, valves, and drug storage reservoirs provide an alternative method for the responsive drug delivery system . Using this device, drug concentration can be precisely controlled which enhances drug efficiency and decreases the side effects. In order to achieve responsive drug delivery, a reliable release valve has to be developed. Biocompatibility, low energy consumption, and minimized leakage are the main requirements for such release method. A bilayer structure composed of Au/PPy film is fabricated as a flap to control the release valve. Optimized potentiostatic control to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy) is presented. The release of miniaturize valve is tested and showed in this paper. A novel idea to simultaneously fabricate the device reservoirs as well as protective packaging is proposed in this paper. The solution of PDMS permeability problem is also mentioned in this article.
A miniature controllable drug delivery device in which drug release is achieved by actuating polymeric valves is introduced. The valves made in flap configuration are bilayer structures which were fabricated as a thin gold film and an electrochemically deposited polypyrrole (PPy) layer. A drug simulate was stored in a reservoir and the drug release process was accomplished by bending the bilayer flaps with a small electrical potential bias in solution. The detailed fabrication procedures of this controllable drug delivery device are presented.