The Charge Coupled Device (CCD) has often been the imaging detector of choice for satellite missions. The space environments these camera systems operate in is abundant with highly energetic radiation. It is impossible to fully protect the CCD from the radiation environment, understanding the impact of radiation damage at a fundamental level is essential to characterise and correct the degradation on the image or spectrum. Here we study the properties of individual traps, with particular attention paid to the silicon divacancy, one of the major trap species found in n-channel CCDs caused by radiation damage that can effect image readout. Through the use of the trap pumping technique it is possible to observe individual traps and their properties in high detail with sub-pixel accuracy. Previous studies using the trap pumping technique have focused on proton irradiated CCDs to characterise the resulting defects. In addition to proton irradiated devices, the use of a 60Co source allows the study of traps resulting from gamma irradiation and through this analysis a comparison can be made.
P-Channel CCDs may offer improved tolerance of radiation damage compared to the N-Channel equivalent due to favorable differences in the population of silicon defects that impact charge transfer performance following irradiation. The technology may therefore be attractive for applications within harsh radiation environments, yet requires further validation against existing N-Channel technology to better understand the regime where performance benefits can be expected. In this study, a P- and N-Channel CCD204, manufactured by Teledyne-e2v, were irradiated simultaneously biased and under cryogenic conditions. Following irradiation, the devices were tested for charge transfer performance at multiple temperatures and clocking speeds consistent with large-scale space missions. Silicon defects were also probed within each device using the “trap pumping” technique across the parameter space relevant for optimization of charge transfer. Performance differences between each device are presented and linked to the relevant silicon defects identified through trap pumping. We conclude with an outlook on future results that include the impact of both a room temperature (298 K) and high temperature (373 K) anneal on the performance of each device.