GaAsP nanowires (NWs) containing a range of different heterostructures are shown to be a highly promising system for the fabrication of efficient and novel ultra-small light emitters. NWs containing GaAs radial quantum wells (QWs) have emission with high thermal stability, due to both large electron and hole confinement potentials. A structure containing three QWs exhibits very low threshold lasing at low temperatures. Within the GaAsP central region of the same NW, the formation of quantum wires (QWRs) on three of the six vertices is observed, these QWRs are aligned parallel to the NW axis. The presence of twins causes a 180° rotation of the crystal about the growth axis, breaking the QWRs into short sections which may act as quantum dots (QDs). Optical studies of the NWs support the formation of optically active QWRs and QDs. In a second type of NW, during growth of the GaAsP NW core the introduction of a short GaAs section forms a QD. The inclusion of up to 50 QDs with high structural and optical quality is shown to be possible; indicating the potential for the fabrication of QD lasers. A structure with only one QD exhibits a single sharp emission line and behavior consistent with single exciton recombination. The addition of passivation layers, grown as a shell on the NW core, is shown to be essential in obtaining good optical properties. Our studies hence demonstrate that GaAsP-GaAs NWs containing heterostructures have significant potential for a range of novel light emitting applications.