We report experimental measurements of Optical Bistability (OB) and nonlinear switching in a 1550 nm-Vertical-Cavity
Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (VCSOA) operated in reflection and biased below and above its threshold current.
Two different types of OB and nonlinear switching, anticlockwise and clockwise, have been observed in both the optical
power and wavelength domain. The influence of important parameters including the bias current, the initial wavelength
detuning and the optical input power has also been studied. The existence of diverse forms of OB and nonlinear
switching in a VCSOA operated in reflection opens the door for the development of inverting and non-inverting logic
gates, using, respectively, the anticlockwise or the clockwise nonlinear switching transitions appearing in the VCSOA
under external optical injection.
Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOAs) have mainly found application in optical telecommunication networks for optical signal regeneration, wavelength switching or wavelength conversion. The objective of this paper is to report the use of semiconductor optical amplifiers for optical sensing taking into account their optical bistable properties. As it was previously reported, some semiconductor optical amplifiers, including Fabry-Perot and Distributed-Feedback Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (FPSOAs and DFBSOAs), may exhibit optical bistability. The characteristics of the attained optical bistability in this kind of devices are strongly dependent on different parameters including wavelength, temperature or applied bias current and small variations lead to a change on their bistable properties. As in previous analyses for Fabry-Perot and DFB SOAs, the variations of these parameters and their possible application for optical sensing are reported in this paper for the case of the Vertical-Cavity Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (VCSOA). When using a VCSOA, the input power needed for the appearance of optical bistability is one order of magnitude lower than that needed in edge-emitting devices. This feature, added to the low manufacturing costs of VCSOAs and the ease to integrate them in 2-D arrays, makes the VCSOA a very promising device for its potential use in optical sensing applications.
The study of the Vertical-Cavity Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (VCSOAs) for optical signal processing applications is increasing his interest. Due to their particular structure, the VCSOAs present some advantages when compared to their edge-emitting counterparts including low manufacturing costs, high coupling efficiency to optical fibers and the ease to fabricate 2-D arrays of this kind of devices. As a consequence, all-optical logic gates based on VCSOAs may be very promising devices for their use in optical computing and optical switching in communications. Moreover, since all the boolean logic functions can be implemented by combining NAND logic gates, the development of a Vertical-Cavity NAND gate would be of particular interest. In this paper, the characteristics of the dispersive optical bistability appearing on a VCSOA operated in reflection are studied. A progressive increment of the number of layers compounding the top Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) of the VCSOA results on a change on the shape of the appearing bistability from an S-shape to a clockwise bistable loop. This resulting clockwise bistability has high on-off contrast ratio and input power requirements one order of magnitude lower than those needed for edge-emitting devices. Based on these results, an all-optical vertical-cavity NAND gate with high on-off contrast ratio and an input power for operation of only 10W will be reported in this paper.
We present simulation results on how power output-input characteristic bistability in Distributed FeedBack -DFB
semiconductor laser diode SLA can be employed to implemented Boolean logic device. Two configurations of DFB Laser diode under external optical injection, either in the transmission or in the reflective mode of operation, is used to implement different Optical Logic Cells (OLCs), called the Q- and the P-Device OLCs. The external optical injection correspond to two inputs data plus a cw control signal that allows to choose the Boolean logic function to be implement. DFB laser diode parameters are choosing to obtain an output-input characteristic with the values desired. The desired values are mainly the on-off contrast and switching power, conforming shape of hysteretic cycle. Two DFB lasers in cascade, one working in transmission operation and the other one in reflective operation, allows designing an input-output characteristic based on the same respond of a self-electrooptic effect device is obtained. Input power for a bit "1" is 35 μW(70μW) and a bit "0" is zero for all the Boolean function to be execute. Device control signal range to choose
the logic function is 0-140 μW (280 μW). Q-device (P-device)
The nonlinear optical properties of many materials and devices have been the main object of research as potential candidates for sensing in different places. Just one of these properties has been, in most of the cases, the basis for the sensing operation. As a consequence, just one parameter can be detected. In this paper, although just one property will be employed too, we will show the possibility to sense different parameters with just one type of sensor. The way adopted in this work is the use of the optical bistability obtained from different photonic structures. Because this optical bistability has a strong dependence on many different parameters the possibility to sense different inputs appears. In our case, we will report the use of some non-linear optical devices, mainly Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers, as sensing elements. Because their outputs depend on many parameters, as the incident light wavelength, polarization, intensity and direction, applied voltage and feedback characteristics, they can be employed to detect, at the same time, different type of signals. This is because the way these different signals affect to the sensor response is very different too and appears under a different set of characteristics.
Laser Diodes have been employed many times as light sources on different kinds of optical sensors. Their main function in these applications was the emission of an optical radiation impinging onto a certain object and, according to the characteristics of the reflected light, some information about this object was obtained. Lased diodes were acting, in certain way, just as passive devices where their only function was to provide the adequate radiation to be later measured and analyzed. The objective of this paper is to report a new concept on the use of laser diodes taking into account their optical bistable properties. As it has been shown in several places, different laser diodes as, for example, DFB lasers, offer bistable characteristics being these characteristics a function of different parameters as wavelength, light polarization or temperature. Laser Bistability is strongly dependent on them and any small variation of above parameters gives rise to a strong change in the characteristics of its non-linear properties. These variations will be analyzed and their application in sensing reported. It will be reported the dependence on wavelength, spectral width, input power and phase variations, mainly for a Fabry-Perot Laser structure as basic configuration.
The semiconductor laser diodes that are typically used in applications of optical communications, when working as amplifiers, present under certain conditions optical bistability, which is characterized by abruptly switching between two different output states and an associated hysteresis cycle. This bistable behavior is strongly dependent on the frequency detuning between the frequency of the external* optical signal that is injected into the semiconductor laser amplifier and its own emission frequency. This means that small changes in the wavelength of an optical signal applied to a laser amplifier causes relevant changes in the characteristics of its transfer function in terms of the power requirements to achieve bistability and the width of the hysteresis. This strong dependence in the working characteristics of semiconductor laser amplifiers on frequency detuning suggest the use of this kind of devices in optical sensing applications for optical communications, such as the detection of shifts in the emission wavelength of a laser, or detect possible interference between adjacent channels in DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing) optical communication networks.
Output bits from an optical logic cell present noise due to the type of technique used to obtain the Boolean functions of two input data bits. We have simulated the behavior of an optically programmable logic cell working with Fabry Perot-laser diodes of the same type employed in optical communications (1550nm) but working here as amplifiers. We will report in this paper a study of the bit noise generated from the optical non-linearity process allowing the Boolean function operation of two optical input data signals. Two types of optical logic cells will be analyzed. Firstly, a classical “on-off” behavior, with transmission operation of LD amplifier and, secondly, a more complicated configuration with two LD amplifiers, one working on transmission and the other one in reflection mode. This last configuration has nonlinear behavior emulating SEED-like properties. In both cases, depending on the value of a “1” input data signals to be processed, a different logic function can be obtained. Also a CW signal, known as control signal, may be apply to fix the type of logic function. The signal to noise ratio will be analyzed for different parameters, as wavelength signals and the hysteresis cycles regions associated to the device, in relation with the signals power level applied. With this study we will try to obtain a better understanding of the possible effects present on an optical logic gate with Laser Diodes.