We present an optic for laboratory Mo-Kalpha single crystal diffraction systems. The optic is comprised of two elliptically bent focusing multilayers, which are arranged in the Montel scheme. The paper shows the design and performance of the optic. A comparison with a graphite monochromator shows a five-fold intensity enhancement. Especially small and weakly diffracting crystals benefit from the large intensity produced by the optic, as illustrated by diffraction analyses.
We present recent developments in the production of X-ray multilayer optics for Cu Kα laboratory single crystal diffraction equipment for protein crystallography and structural proteomics. The paper shows design, simulations and properties of Montel optics comprised of two elliptically bent focusing multilayers, optimized for the use with modern rotating anode X-ray generators. The multilayers are sputter deposited with a graded d-spacing along the length of the substrate.
The various beam properties such as flux density and divergence are investigated in detail. After optimization of the optic for a state-of-the-art rotating anode x-ray generator, we obtain a flux density of 1 x 1010 photons/s/mm2. Results for a typical protein structure will be shown, illustrating the advantage of Montel optics in the field of single-crystal diffraction and protein crystallography for life sciences.
In this paper we review various improvements that we made in the development of multilayer mirror optics for home-lab x-ray analytical equipment in recent years. For the detection of light elements using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, we developed a number of new multilayers with improved detection limits. In detail, we found that La/B4C multilayers improve the detection limit of boron by 29 % compared to the previous Mo/B4C multilayers. For the detection of carbon, TiO2/C multilayers improve the detection limit also by 29 % compared to the V/C multilayers previously used. For the detection of aluminum, WSi2/Si or Ta/Si multilayers can lead to detection limit improvements over the current W/Si multilayers of up to 60 % for samples on silicon wafers. For the use as beam-conditioning elements in x-ray diffractometry, curved optics coated with laterally d-spacing graded multilayers give rise to major improvements concerning usable x-ray intensity and beam quality. Recent developments lead to a high quality of these multilayer optics concerning beam intensity, divergence, beam uniformity and spectral purity. For example, x-ray reflectometry instruments equipped with such multilayer optics have dynamic ranges previously only available at synchrotron sources. Two-dimensional focusing multilayer optics are shown to become essential optical elements in protein crystallography and structural proteomics.