Conference Program Committee |
Area of Expertise:
High dynamic range image sensors ,
Image sensor and line scan sensors consulting ,
EMVA1288 measurement standard ,
EMVA1288 test equipment ,
Image sensor control algorithms ,
Image enhancement algorithms
Illumination is a crucial element in many applications, matching the luminance of the scene with the operational range of a camera. When luminance cannot be adequately controlled, a high dynamic range (HDR) imaging system may be necessary. These systems are being increasingly used in automotive on-board systems, road traffic monitoring, and other industrial, security, and military applications. This book provides readers with an intermediate discussion of HDR image sensors and techniques for industrial and non-industrial applications. It describes various sensor and pixel architectures capable of achieving HDR imaging, as well as software approaches to make high dynamic range images out of lower dynamic range sensors or image sets. Some methods for automatic control of exposure and dynamic range of image sensors are also introduced. This edition introduces CMOS pixel and image sensor design concepts and circuits.
Proc. SPIE. 8298, Sensors, Cameras, and Systems for Industrial and Scientific Applications XIII
KEYWORDS: Signal to noise ratio, Visual process modeling, Imaging systems, Cameras, Interference (communication), Image sensors, Electronic imaging, Systems modeling, Standards development, Current controlled current source
The European Machine Vision Association took in the last years the initiative of developing a measurement and reporting standard for industrial image sensors and cameras called EMVA1288.
Aphesa offers camera and sensors measurement services and test equipment according to this EMVA1288 standard. We have measured cameras of various kinds on our self-made test-equipment. This implementation and all the measurement sets require to go in the details of the standard and also show us how good it can be but also how difficult it can be.
The purpose of this paper is to give feedback on the standard, based on our experience of implementers and users. We will see that some measurements are easily reproducible and can easily be implemented while others require more research on hardware, software and procedures and also that the results can sometimes have very little meaning.
Our conclusion will be that the EMVA1288 standard is good and well suited for the measurement and characterization of image sensors and cameras for image processing applications but that it is hard for a newcomer to understand the produced data and properly use a test equipment. Developing a complete and compliant test equipment is also a difficult task.
Selecting an image sensor or a camera for an industrial application is a difficult task. Data sheets usually provide
incomplete performance information. Even if detailed performance information is provided, each supplier has its own
test and data reporting methods. Many customers will then chose to evaluate each candidate sensor or camera in their
lab. This approach is time consuming and requires appropriate lab equipment.
EMVA1288 is a measurement and reporting standard developed to
The dynamic range of a scene is usually higher than the dynamic range of the sensor used to acquire the image. Design
optimizations must be found that increase the intra-scene dynamic range a sensor can achieve. Good dynamic range is
necessary to image a scene with the required details and contrast in a single image. The first topic addressed by the paper
is the definition of intra-scene dynamic range. The paper will detail past and present techniques to increase the dynamic
range of snapshot CMOS image sensors and show the necessary future developments in high dynamic range imaging.
The technologies shown are used by various image sensor manufacturers, only a portion thereof are used in Melexis
Conference Committee Involvement (3)
Image Sensors and Imaging Systems 2015
9 February 2015 | San Francisco, California, United States
Image Sensors and Imaging Systems 2014
5 February 2014 | San Francisco, California, United States
Sensors, Cameras, and Systems for Industrial/Scientific Applications XIV
6 February 2013 | Burlingame, California, United States
SC1084: Characterizing and Specifying Industrial, Medical and Scientific Image Sensors and Cameras: The EMVA1288 Standard
The EMVA1288 standard, now in version 3.1, has been introduced to fill a need for a more uniform and standardized way of specifying the performance of image sensors and cameras. Indeed until the EMVA1288 standard, there was no common method to characterize and specify image sensors and cameras except for those used in and photography and professional broadcasting. The EMVA1288 standard complements the ISO standard allowing for specification and comparison of image sensors and cameras for industrial, medical and scientific applications where ISO parameters like "lux" or "standard observer" are not meaningful. Instead, it uses metrics like watts or electrons which enable more direct estimation of system performance.
SC967: High Dynamic Range Imaging: Sensors and Architectures
This course provides attendees with knowledge of high dynamic range image sensors and techniques for industrial and non-industrial applications, for example automotive, surveillance, homeland security, medical and drones. The course starts with an in-depth introduction to dynamic range and image sensor design and continues into various specific pixel designs and sensor architectures to achieve high dynamic range imaging. Then software approaches to make high dynamic range images out of lower dynamic range sensors or image sets are introduced. Some methods for automatic control of exposure and dynamic range of image sensors and other issues like color and glare will be introduced. The testing and validation of HDR systems is also discussed. The course has an intermediate to high technical level but does not require any prerequisites. It is also a very complete course on CMOS image sensor technology.
SC1016: Introduction to High Dynamic Range Imaging
This course provides attendees with a basic knowledge of high dynamic range image sensors and techniques for industrial and non-industrial applications. HDR is increasingly being used in automotive on-board systems, road traffic monitoring, industrial, security, and military applications and offers advantages including a stronger robustness against direct sunlight or reflection of strong lights on metals and a better detection of objects located in shadows. The course is not about the artistic side of high dynamic range images, although some aspects of HDR photography will be mentioned.
After an introduction, application examples, and a review of linear pixels, the course will describe the most common sensor and pixel architectures to achieve high dynamic range imaging as well as software approaches to make high dynamic range images out of lower dynamic range sensors or image sets. The course includes examples and short demonstrations.
This course serves as an introduction to the subject and is complemented by SC967, which goes into greater depth and focuses on HDR sensors and architectures.