We applied terahertz (THz)-pulsed spectroscopy to study ex vivo the refractive index and absorption coefficient of human brain gliomas featuring different grades, as well as perifocal regions containing both intact and edematous tissues. Glioma samples from 26 patients were considered and analyzed according to further histological examination. In order to fix tissues for the THz measurements, we applied gelatin embedding, which allows for sustaining their THz response unaltered, as compared to that of the freshly excised tissues. We observed a statistical difference between the THz optical constants of intact tissues and gliomas of grades I to IV, while the response of edema was similar to that of tumor. The results of this paper justify a potential of THz technology in the intraoperative label-free diagnosis of human brain gliomas for ensuring the gross-total resection.
Application of terahertz (THz) spectroscopy for biological tissues is strongly limited by the extremely low penetration depth due to THz absorption by tissue water. One of the possible solution of such problem is the usage of THz wave penetration-enhancing agents (PEA) for optical clearing of tissues. In the present paper, the transmission-mode THz spectroscopy of a set of PEAs (polyethylene glycol with different molecular weight, propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and dimethyl sulfoxide) was performed in order to reconstruct their dielectric properties and compare them with that of water. The obtained results emphasize the feasibility of using PEG to enhance the depth of THz wave penetration into tissues.
Terahertz (THz) pulsed spectroscopy is a convenient instrument for studying the THz dielectric response of healthy and abnormal tissue in a wide spectral range. One of the most promising applications of THz pulsed spectroscopy is associated with non-invasive, least-invasive and intraoperative medical diagnostics of malignancies in various localizations, including the skin, the breast, the colon, and the brain .
In our research, we developed a method for reconstructing the THz dielectric response of biotissues in vitro and in vivo using the THz pulsed spectroscopy [2–5]. We applied this method for studying healthy and pathological tissues of the skin and the brain.
(i) We observed statistical differences between THz dielectric properties of ordinary and dysplastic nevi of the skin in vivo. This highlights an ability for non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplastic nevi and melanomas of the skin using the THz spectroscopy and imaging [3–5].
(ii) By studying the THz dielectric permittivity of non-melanoma skin cancers in vitro (i.e. basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma), we justify an ability for discriminating malignant tissues from surrounding normal skin using preoperative and intraoperative THz imaging [6,7].
(iii) Finally, the results of measuring the THz dielectric response of gelatin-fixed malignancies of the brain in vitro allow us to analyze an ability for discriminating brain gliomas from surrounding normal tissues during the neurosurgery using the THz technologies.
The observed results of THz measurements agrees well with the data of biotissues studying using other modern modalities of optical imaging, such as intraoperative exogenous fluorescence imaging and optical coherence tomography, as well as with the data of biotissue histology. These results highlight the prospective of THz spectroscopy, imaging and endoscopy use for non-invasive, least-invasive and intraoperative medical diagnosis of malignancies.
 O.A. Smolyanskaya,·M.M. Nazarov,·O.P. Cherkasova,·J.-P. Guillet,·J.-L. Coutaz, A.A. Konovko, Y.V.Kistenev,·P. Mounaix, I.A. Ozheredov, V.L. Vaks, A. Yaroslavsky,·N.V. Chernomyrdin, K.I. Zaytsev, S.A. Kozlov,·J.-H. Son, V. Wallace,·A.P. Shkurinov, ·V.V. Tuchin, “Terahertz biophotonics as a tool for studies of dielectricand spectral properties of tissues and bioliquids relatedto water content,” Progress in Quantum Electronics (2017, Submitted).
 IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology 5(5), 817 (2015).
 Applied Physics Letters 106(5), 053702 (2015)
 European Journal of Cancer 51, S167 (2015).
 Optics and Spectroscopy 119(3), 404 (2015).
 Journal of Physics: Conference Series 486(1), 012014 (2014).
 Journal of Physics: Conference Series 584(1), 012023 (2015).
We have performed the <i>in vitro</i> terahertz (THz) spectroscopy of human brain tumors. In order to fix tissues for the THz measurements, we have applied the gelatin embedding. It allows for preserving tissues from hydration/dehydration and sustaining their THz response similar to that of the freshly-excised tissues for a long time after resection. We have assembled an experimental setup for the reflection-mode measurements of human brain tissues based on the THz pulsed spectrometer. We have used this setup to study <i>in vitro</i> the refractive index and the amplitude absorption coefficient of 2 samples of malignant glioma (grade IV), 1 sample of meningioma (grade I), and samples of intact tissues. We have observed significant differences between the THz responses of normal and pathological tissues of the brain. The results of this paper highlight the potential of the THz technology in the intraoperative neurodiagnosis of tumors relying on the endogenous labels of tumorous tissues.
Development of novel methods for non-destructive evaluation of composite materials (CMs) at manufacturing and operational stages remains challenging problem of applied physics, optics and material science. In this paper, we have considered the ability to use the terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) for non-destructive evaluation of CMs. By combining the TDS technique with appropriate methods of solving the inverse ill-posed problems, we have shown that TDS could be applied for CM testing. At first, we have demonstrated that TDS could be used to control the polymerization process and, as a consequence, the CM binder curing. Secondary, we have shown the ability to detect the internal defects (non-impregnated voids) inside the CMs via the TDS-based THz time-of-flight tomography. Thereby, the results of our study allow highlighting the prospective of non-destructive evaluation of CMs using the TDS.
De-noising of terahertz (THz) pulsed spectroscopy (TPS) data is an essential problem, since a noise in the TPS system data prevents correct reconstruction of the sample spectral dielectric properties and to perform the sample internal structure studying. There are certain regions in TPS signal Fourier spectrum, where Fourier-domain signal-to-noise ratio is relatively small. Effective de-noising might potentially expand the range of spectrometer spectral sensitivity and reduce the time of waveform registration, which is an essential problem for biomedical applications of TPS. In this work, it is shown how the recent progress in signal processing in wavelet-domain could be used for TPS waveforms de-noising. It demonstrates the ability to perform effective de-noising of TPS data using the algorithm of the Fast Wavelet Transform (FWT). The results of the optimal wavelet basis selection and wavelet-domain thresholding technique selection are reported. Developed technique is implemented for reconstruction of in vivo healthy and deseased skin samplesspectral characteristics at THz frequency range.
This summer BMSTU SPIE Student Chapter have decided to visit Kabardino-Balkaria Republic of Caucasus (Russia) and spent there a week with children in a camp. It was called Summer school. We decided to organize it in order to engage talented and curious children in Optics and to show them how science could be funny. Education and entertainment program included such activities as lectures, optical demonstrations, laser games, hiking in the forest, and others. As a result children had a good time outdoors, learned interesting facts about optics and lasers, and of course found new friends who are keen to know more too. Four Chapter members and about 70 children of age 10-16 took part in this event.