Terra MODIS has provided continuous global observations for science research and applications for more than 18 years. The MODIS Thermal emissive bands (TEB) radiometric calibration uses a quadratic function for instrument response. The calibration coefficients are updated using the response of an on-board blackbody (BB) in quarterly warm-up and cool-down (WUCD) events. As instrument degradation and electronic crosstalk of long-wave infrared (LWIR) bands 27 to 30 developed substantial issues, accurate calibration is crucial for a high-quality L1B product. The on-board BB WUCD temperature ranges from 270 K to 315 K and the derived nonlinear response has a relatively large uncertainty for the offset, especially for these LWIR bands, which affects the measurements of low brightness temperature (BT) scenes. In this study, the TEB radiometric calibration impact on the L1B product is assessed using selected cold targets and the measurements during regular lunar rolls. The cold targets include Antarctic Dome Concordia (Dome-C) and deep convective clouds (DCC) for the calibration assessment, focusing on bands 27 to 30. Dome-C area is covered with uniformly-distributed permanent snow, and the atmospheric effect is small and relatively constant. Usually the DCC is treated as an invariant earth target to evaluate the reflective solar band calibration. The DCC can also be treated as a stable target to assess the performance of TEB calibration. During a scheduled lunar observation event with a spacecraft roll maneuver to view the moon through the space view port, the instrument cavity provides a stable reference for calibration assessment. The long-term trending of BT measurements and the relative difference between scan mirror sides and detectors are used for the assessment of the calibration consistency and stability. The comparison of L1B products over the selected targets before and after the calibration coefficients update can be used to assess the impact of a calibration look-up table (LUT) update. This assessment is beneficial for future calibration algorithm and LUT update procedure improvements for enhancing the L1B product quality.
Over the years, data from different satellites has provided invaluable information about Earth's atmosphere, land and oceans. The thermal emissive bands (TEB) on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are comprised of 16 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 3.7 to 14.4 μm. MODIS TEB are calibrated on orbit on a scan-by-scan basis using an on-board blackbody (BB). Sentinel-3 Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR), launched on 16 February 2016, has 11 spectral bands with wavelengths from 0.55 to 12 μm. In this study, we compare the observed brightness temperature from MODIS bands 31 and 32 and SLSTR bands S8 and S9 over Dome C using a 20 × 20 km region of interest (ROI) centered at (75.102 °S ,123.395 °E). A total of 2989 scenes for Terra, 2963 for Aqua and 1961 for SLSTR from November, 2016 to January 2018 are analyzed. The relative bias between MODIS and SLSTR is evaluated using the near-surface temperature measurements from an Automatic Weather Station (AWS).
Over the years, data from Terra and Aqua MODIS (The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) has provided invaluable information about Earth's atmosphere, land and oceans. Both MODIS sensors have exceeded their designed lifetime of 6 years and are still in operation. Therefore, it is important to understand the on- orbit performance of both sensors. The thermal emissive bands (TEB) on MODIS are comprised of 16 spectral bands with wavelengths from 3.7 to 14.4 μm. The TEB are calibrated on orbit on a scan-by-scan basis using a blackbody calibration source. Since the mission beginning, a steady increase in electronic crosstalk has been observed in Terra MODIS bands 27-30. The MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) at NASA/GSFC has recently derived a set of correction factors that correct these bands for the entire mission. These corrections are being applied in Terra Collection 6.1. In this study, the effectiveness of this crosstalk correction is assessed. First, the observed brightness temperatures over Dome C for Terra with and without the crosstalk correction are compared. Then, the calibration consistency and stability between the TEB of Terra, with the crosstalk correction, and Aqua MODIS are also assessed. Finally, the relative bias between the two MODIS instruments is evaluated using the near-surface temperature measurements from an Automatic Weather Station (AWS).
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the key sensors among a suite of remote sensing instruments on board the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts. Since the beginning of each mission, regularly scheduled lunar observations have been used in order to track the on-orbit gain changes of the reflective solar bands. However, for the short-wave infrared bands, 5-7 and 26, the measured signal is contaminated by both electronic crosstalk and an out-of-band response due to transmission through the MODIS filters at undesired wavelengths. These contaminating signals cause significant oscillations in the derived gain from lunar observations for these bands, which limits their use in determining the scan mirror response versus scan angle at these wavelengths. In this paper, we show a strategy for correcting the electronic crosstalk contamination using lunar observations, where the magnitude and the source of the contaminating signal is clear. For Aqua MODIS, we find that the magnitude of the electronic crosstalk contamination is small, and the lunar calibration remains relatively unaffected. For Terra MODIS, the contamination is more significant, and the electronic crosstalk correction shows a significant reduction in the oscillations of the lunar calibration results.
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the Terra spacecraft is one of the
key instruments in NASA's Earth Observing System. Since 2000, MODIS has collected continuous data in 36
spectral bands ranging in wavelength between 0.4 μm and 14.2 μm. Since before launch, signal contamination in
the form of electronic crosstalk has been observed in many of the MODIS thermal emissive bands, particularly
for bands 27-30, a correction for which has been applied to the current Collection 6 algorithm. The mid-wave
infrared bands in Terra MODIS, 20-25, also show signs of electronic crosstalk contamination, which can be
seen clearly during observations of the Moon. In this paper, we'll present an impact assessment of electronic
crosstalk on the mid-wave infrared bands in Terra MODIS. We will also derive correction coefficients from the
lunar observations, which can be applied to correct the calibrated radiance in the MODIS Level-1B product. We
will provide an analysis of these results and potential improvements to the MODIS Level-1B product.
The DC restore (DCR) process of MODIS instrument maintains the output of a detector at focal plane assembly (FPA) within the dynamic range of subsequent analog-to-digital converter, by adding a specific offset voltage to the output. The DCR offset value is adjusted per scan, based on the comparison of the detector response in digital number (DN) collected from the blackbody (BB) view with target DN saved as an on-board look-up table. In this work, the MODIS DCR mechanism is revisited, with the trends of DCR offset being provided for thermal emissive bands (TEB). Noticeable changes have been occasionally found which coincide with significant detector gain change due to various instrumental events such as safe-mode anomaly or FPA temperature fluctuation. In general, MODIS DCR functionality has been effective and the change of DCR offset has no impact to the quality of MODIS data. One exception is the Earth view (EV) data saturation of Aqua MODIS LWIR bands 33, 35 ad 36 during BB warm-up cool-down (WUCD) cycle which has been observed since 2008. The BB view of their detectors saturate when the BB temperature is above certain threshold so the DCR cannot work as designed. Therefore, the dark signal DN fluctuates with the cold FPA (CFPA) temperature and saturate for a few hours per WUCD cycle, which also saturate the EV data sector within the scan. The CFPA temperature fluctuation peaked in 2012 and has been reduced in recent years and the saturation phenomenon has been easing accordingly. This study demonstrates the importance of DCR to data generation.