Thin film multi-layered chalcogenide glass waveguide structures have been fabricated for evanescent wave sensing of bio toxins and other applications. Thin films of Ge containing chalcogenides have been deposited onto Si substrates, with a-GeSe2 as the cladding layer and a-GeSbSe as the core layer to form the slab waveguide. Channel waveguides have been written in the slab waveguides by appropriate light the through a mask. The photo-induced structural changes in the core layer selectively enhance refractive index at the portions of interest and thus confining the light to the channels. The waveguides have been characterized and tested for the guiding of light.
We have systematically designed, fabricated, and tested chalcogenide-glass waveguides. Among all the characterization techniques, we have found that the prism-coupling method is the most effective and accurate for determining all the parameters describing the performance of the slab waveguides. Furthermore, we have also achieved the end-fire coupling in these waveguides to study the characteristics of the transmitted beams. These waveguides can be optimized eventually for the biosensor applications.