Today, terrestrial laser scanning has been a frequently used methodology for the documentation of historical buildings
and cultural heritages. The historical peninsula region is the documentation of historical buildings and cover
approximately 1500 ha. Terrestrial laser scanning and close range image photogrammetry techniques are integrated to
each other to create a 3D urban model of Istanbul including the most important landmarks and the buildings reflecting
the most brilliant areas of Byzantine and Ottoman Empires.
Digital photogrammetric systems have been used to solve various measurement problems in industrial applications for many years. Industrial line-scan video cameras have been widely used in these systems and in machine vision applications. This paper addresses the use of a digital photogrammetric expert measurement system for deformation measurements on the surface of concrete materials. The system consists of two industrial cameras having fixed-focus lenses. Because the accuracy of the photogrammetrically derived object data mostly depends on the camera calibration, the system had to be calibrated first. A 3-D wooden object was specially designed and constructed for that purpose. A measurement process of 17 steps was carried out to determine the displacements on the surface of the samples. Linear variable differential transducers were also used to measure the deformations in a conventional way. Data obtained from the two sets of measurements confirmed the system's reliability and allowed us to monitor surface behavior of the concrete samples under loading.
As for any photogrammetric application, the accuracy of the derived object data is mostly dependent on the accuracy of the camera calibration. For many photogrammetric applications, use of a simple model for lens distortion in conjunction with co-linearity equations is sufficient. However, the combination of very close ranges and the large distortions typically associated with the lenses used on line scan cameras requires an extended lens model to account for variation of distortion within the object space. The fidelity of the calibration a model becomes particularly important where stringent tolerances are set, for example construction experiments or surface measurement.