Development of the three-dimensional printing made, that these techniques are more widely used. Initially, it was invented for quick prototypes manufacturing and models making, then adopted for final parts or even tools producing and nowadays even human organs and microstructures, smaller than human hair, can be 3D printed. It is not surprising, that these methods are adopted for electronics manufacturing, which gave the different approach of circuits producing called structural electronics. In this idea, electrical and mechanical modules are merged together what has great potential in building complex, multifunctional devices with limited sizes and weight. In this paper, a brief overview of structural electronics manufacturing methods are presented on both, industrial and academic, levels. Advantages and disadvantages of existing on the market systems are shown and the newest, often still under development, solutions are analysed. Potential and limitation of each method are presented and challenges of the whole branch of structural electronics manufacturing are shown.
In this paper a combined technique of screen printing and laser sintering of a paste based on the mixture of silver nanoparticles and silver microflakes is presented. This method is excellent for rapid prototyping or short series production of printed electronics devices. Tests with two different substrates (Polyethylene Terephthalate [PET] and Polyimide [PI] foil) and near infrared diode laser (808 nm) are made. Effects of sintering with different parameters (laser beam power and scanning speed) are presented. Resistances of manufactured patterns are measured and the resistivity is calculated. Possibility of using paste which theoretical sintering temperature is higher than substrate melting point is presented.
The screen-printing technique has been widely used in experimental biosensors due to its low cost, scalability and range of manufacturing materials. Various deposition strategies of enzymatic biosensors in thick film technology are being discussed. A brief overview of electrochemical transducers ranging from amperometric to potentiometric, conductometric, impedimetric, coulometric and field-effect based is given, focusing on the most common configurations. Different approaches to immobilization of biological components are shown as well as their advantages and drawbacks. Adsorption, affinity, entrapment, covalent immobilization and cross-linking are methods being discussed to indicate influence on enzyme activity and stability. Example of challenges in enzymatic biosensors manufacturing are presented.
Every year additive techniques are becoming more and more important and popular method of making components. Along with the increasing importance of these techniques, mainly Fused Deposition Modeling technology (FDM), there has been a need to develop new materials that can broaden the scope in which these technologies are used. It is necessary to develop materials with new properties in relation to the standard ones used. Thanks to the addition of metal powders, nanomaterials and other additives to thermoplastic polymers, composites with better magnetic, electrically conductive or heat conductive properties etc. were obtained. This article presents a method for producing polymer composites containing copper powders as the functional phase in order to obtain electrically conducting filaments. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) was used as the matrix of the composite as one of most popular thermoplastic polymer uses in FDM 3D printing. The process of producing the filament, from polymer granulate and metal powder to the finished composite was developed. Composite filaments with a content of 75 to 84,6 wt% of copper were tested. The effect of filling the composite with copper powder on its electrical properties has been studied. Samples with a copper content above 80 wt% showed high electrical conductivity. Electrical conductive paths of the developed composite in the closed polymer housing were printed using the dual extrusion 3D printer.
Selective laser melting is a unique additive technique which can manufacture solid metal objects but it require expensive, high power lasers. The primary aim of this work was to check is it possible to carry out this process by using lower power and high energy pulse laser. The secondary goal was to examine the influence of main technological parameters of selective laser melting on the quality and the thickness of produced layer. The requirements of metal powder, which allowed to obtain a layer with microthickness, were developed.