Here, development of a low-cost structured illumination microscopy (SIM) based on a pico-projector is presented. The pico-projector consists of independent red, green and blue LEDs that remove need for an external illumination source. Moreover, display element of the pico-projector serves as a pattern generating spatial light modulator. A simple lens group is employed to couple light from the projector to an epi-illumination port of a commercial microscope system. 2D sub SIM images are acquired and synthesized to surpass the diffraction limit using 40x (0.75 NA) objective. Resolution of the reconstructed SIM images is verified with a dye-and-object object and a fixed cell sample.
Here, the most suitable infrared laser for a neurosurgery operation is suggested, among 1940-nm thulium fiber, 1470-nm diode, 1070-nm ytterbium fiber and 980-nm diode lasers. Cortical and subcortical ex-vivo lamb brain tissues are exposed to the laser light with the combinations of some laser parameters such as output power, energy density, operation mode (continuous and pulsed-modulated) and operation time. In this way, the greatest ablation efficiency associated with the best neurosurgical laser type can be defined. The research can be divided into two parts; pre-dosimetry and dosimetry studies. The former is used to determine safe operation zones for the dosimetry study by defining coagulation and carbonization onset times for each of the brain tissues. The latter is the main part of this research, and both tissues are exposed to laser irradiation with various energy density levels associated with the output power and operation time. In addition, photo-thermal effects are compared for two laser operation modes, and then coagulation and ablation diameters to calculate the ablation efficiency are measured under a light microscope. Consequently, results are compared graphically and statistically, and it is found that thulium and 1470-nm diode lasers can be utilized as subcortical and cortical tissue ablator devices, respectively.