The beauty of gems and minerals have been examined and appreciated by optical tools for centuries. Current methods for examining the interior structure of gems and minerals typically requires a sample to be cut and polished prior to imaging. In this presentation, we introduce a new tool for imaging gems and minerals in three dimensions, the multiphoton microscope. We have demonstrated that the multiphoton microscope can capture fascinating information from natural gems and minerals with sub-micron resolution at depths up to the millimeter scale. This new application of multiphoton microscopy may open the doors to non-destructive characterization leading to new information on the formation, structure, and appearance of these stones that have fascinated the eye for centuries.
Surgical resection of pancreatic cancer represents the only chance of cure and long-term survival in this common disease. Unfortunately, determination of a cancer-free margin at surgery is based on one or two tiny frozen section biopsies, which is far from ideal. Not surprisingly, cancer is usually left behind and is responsible for metastatic disease. We demonstrate a method of receptor-targeted imaging using peptide ligands, lipid microbubbles, and multiphoton microscopy that could lead to a fast and accurate way of examining the entire cut surface during surgery. Using a plectin-targeted microbubble, we performed a blinded in-vitro study to demonstrate avid binding of targeted microbubbles to pancreatic cancer cells but not noncancerous cell lines. Further work should lead to a much-needed point-of-care diagnostic test for determining clean margins in oncologic surgery.