We present some highlights from SMART-1's science and technology payload, and the relevance of SMART-1 results
and lessons for future lunar exploration.
SMART-1 is the first ESA mission that reached the Moon. It is the first of Small Missions for Advanced Research and
Technology. It has fulfilled its technology objectives to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) and to test
new technologies for spacecraft and instruments.
After a 15-month cruise with primary SEP and successful technology demonstration, the SMART-1 science and
exploration phase, provided first lunar orbit results. The mission has been extended one year and ended with an impact
on 3 September 2006.
We review in the context of latest lunar results the case for future lunar landers and sample returns, as discussed by
various ILEWG science and technology task groups, addressing:
- ESA Lunar Polar Lander Study (LES3)
- A generic lander platform that can be adapted to sample return or to a lunar lander /rover fetcher.
- New Science opportunities from lunar landers
- Clues on mantle/lower crust (South Pole Aitken Basin), polar ice, cometary/meteoritic record
- Technology demonstration preparation for Mars sample return
- Technology demonstrator for lunar ascent vehicle, Earth reentry, and human return vehicle
Technologies that can be developed for lunar sample return missions: entry airless bodies, Descent and landing, robotics,
Instruments, Sample acquisition, Return and Earth reentry.
We discuss the charter and activities of the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG), and give an
update from the related ILEWG task groups. We discuss the different rationale and technology roadmap for Moon
exploration, as debated in previous ILEWG conferences. The Technology rationale includes:
1) The advancement of instrumentation:
2) Technologies in robotic and human exploration
3) Moon-Mars Exploration can inspire solutions to global Earth sustained development.
We finally discuss a possible roadmap for development of technologies necessary for Moon and Mars exploration.
We have studied the feasibility and scientific potential of a 20 - 100 m aperture astronomical telescope at the lunar pole,
with its primary mirror made of spinning liquid at less than 100K. Such a telescope, equipped with imaging and
multiplexed spectroscopic instruments for a deep infrared survey, would be revolutionary in its power to study the
distant universe, including the formation of the first stars and their assembly into galaxies. The LLMT could be used to
follow up discoveries made with the 6 m James Webb Space Telescope, with more detailed images and spectroscopic
studies, as well as to detect objects 100 times fainter, such as the first, high-red shift stars in the early universe. Our
preliminary analysis based on SMART-1 AMIE images shows ridges and crater rims within 0.5° of the North Pole are
illuminated for at least some sun angles during lunar winter. Locations near these points may prove to be ideal for the
LLMT. Lunar dust deposited on the optics or in a thin atmosphere could be problematic. An in-situ site survey appears
necessary to resolve the dust questions.