As demonstrated, surface plasmons (SPs) stimulated by incident lightwaves are one of the most popular research fields, currently. The researches about the remarkable generation and efficient transmission and effective manipulation of relatively strong SPs are generally limited by a range constraint of wavelength or sub-wavelength-scaled structures. So far, the interaction between the electromagnetic field and the free electrons over the metal and medium interface or special metal micro-nano-structure has been mainly studied. In reality, a type of adjustable ionic exciter device is needed, which lead to a new focus about the adjustable ionic exciter materials. At present, two-dimensional graphene materials already demonstrate several excellent optical and electrical properties, and their conductivity and dielectric constant can be easily affected by external bias electric field, so as to exhibit a prospect as a kind of basic materials for adjustable and other excitation components. In this paper, the adjustable properties of single crystal graphene are studied. The effects based on the factors including the temperature and the scattering rate and the chemical potential corresponding to some parameters such as the conductivity and dielectric constant of graphene are analyzed carefully. In addition, the composite structure of the graphene grating nano-apexes is designed, which is characterized based on the multi-frequency points resonance according to incident light at the waveband of 4~11μm. The key graphene-based structure is modeled and simulated by the FDTD solution based on a finite difference time domain method under the different chemical potential. Then, the transmission and reflection and absorption behaviors of the graphene-based structure were analyzed according to the near electric field intensity distribution curves.