The PRL Advanced Radial-velocity Abu-sky Search (PARAS) instrument is a fiber-fed stabilized high-resolution cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph, located on the 1.2 m telescope in Mt. Abu India. Designed for exoplanet detection, PARAS is capable of single-shot spectral coverage of 3800 - 9600 Å, and currently achieving radial velocity (RV) precisions approaching ~1 m s<sup>-1</sup> over several months using simultaneous ThAr calibration. As such, it is one of the few dedicated stabilized fiber-fed spectrographs on small (1-2 m) telescopes that are able to fill an important niche in RV follow-up and stellar characterization. The success of ground-based RV surveys is motivating the push into extreme precisions, with goals of ~ 10 cm s<sup>-1</sup> in the optical and <1 m s<sup>-1</sup> in the near-infrared (NIR). Lessons from existing instruments like PARAS are invaluable in informing hardware design, providing pipeline prototypes, and guiding scientific surveys. Here we present our current precision estimates of PARAS based on observations of bright RV standard stars, and describe the evolution of the data reduction and RV analysis pipeline as instrument characterization progresses and we gather longer baselines of data. Secondly, we discuss how our experience with PARAS is a critical component in the development of future cutting edge instruments like (1) the Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF), a near-infrared spectrograph optimized to look for planets around M dwarfs, scheduled to be commissioned on the Hobby Eberly Telescope in 2017, and (2) the NEID optical spectrograph, designed in response to the NN-EXPLORE call for an extreme precision Doppler spectrometer (EPDS) for the WIYN telescope. In anticipation of instruments like TESS and GAIA, the ground-based RV support system is being reinforced. We emphasize that instruments like PARAS will play an intrinsic role in providing both complementary follow-up and battlefront experience for these next generation of precision velocimeters.
We describe the design and optimization of a wide-field near-infrared camera and spectrograph (NICAS) for Mt Abu 1.2
m, f/13 Cassegrain telescope of Physical Research Laboratory. The principal science goals include photometric mapping
of star forming regions and medium resolution spectroscopy of Young Stellar Objects, evolved stars and transient
sources. The design goals are to achieve seeing-limited angular resolution in an un-vignetted field of view of ~ 8'x8' with
0.5" per pixel (of 18.5 μm) on a HgCdTe 1024×1024 infrared array, requiring a two-fold Cassegrain focal reduction. In
addition to the imaging, the instrument is required to have spectroscopic capability with a resolving power of 10<sup>3</sup> in the
0.85 - 2.5 μm region, needing a dispersion of 1 nm per pixel. Finally, since our telescope has a moderate aperture, the
throughput losses need to be minimized. The specifications are achieved by an optical design using 9 singlet lenses.
Only those lens materials are chosen for which measured values are available for refractive indices at 77 K (detector
operating temperature), changes of indices with temperature, and thermal coefficients of expansion. The design is
optimized to give sharpest images at 77 K. The optical path is folded by 90° after collimation by a fold-mirror and re-imaged
on the detector. The fold-mirror is replaced by a diffraction grating for spectrograph mode. In order to minimize
the reflection losses, all the lenses will be anti-reflection coated for the full operating wavelength range. Details of the
design are presented.