The main objective of this paper is crystallization of semi-insulating material with resistivity ~109 Ωcm in temperature range between 296 K and 1000 K. No free carriers should be activated at elevated temperature. Source of Mn dopant will be metallic manganese. Hydrochloride flow will be set above the Mn source and as a result of reaction MnCl2 will form. Manganese dichloride will be transported to the growth zone of GaN. The following growth parameters will be established and analyzed: i/ growth temperature, ii/ flows of gas reagents (HCl above gallium, HCl above metallic Mn, ammonia), iii/ carrier gas composition (N2, H2, mixture of N2 + H2, or nonreactive gas), iv/ temperature of metallic Mn source. Determining proper parameters should result in a stable growth of HVPE-GaN:Mn crystals with a desired morphology (hillocks). Distribution of manganese dopant will be uniform in the grown layer. HVPE-GaN:Mn will be thicker than 1 mm. Their diameter will depend on the used seed – up to 2-inch. The layers will be removed from the seeds by slicing procedure and as a result free-standing HVPE-GaN:Mn will be obtained. Structural, optical and electrical properties of this material will be examined and presented.
The main objective of this paper is crystallization of AlGaN by HVPE method. Source of Al will be metallic aluminum. Hydrochloride flow will be set above the Al source at temperature of 500ºC and as a result of reaction AlCl will form. Aluminum monochloride will be transported to the growth zone of AlGaN. The following growth parameters will be established and analyzed: i/ growth temperature, ii/ flows of gas reagents (HCl above gallium, HCl above metallic Al, ammonia), iii/ carrier gas composition (N2 or nonreactive gas). Determining proper parameters should result in a stable growth of HVPE-AlGaN layers with a desired composition of aluminum (Al content from 1 to 25%). Distribution of aluminum will be uniform in the grown layers. HVPE-AlGaN will be thick up to 100 µm. Their diameter will depend on the used seed – up to 2-inch. Structural, optical and electrical properties of HVPE-AlGaN will be examined and presented in this paper.
Advanced Substrates consist of a 200-nm-thick GaN layer bonded to a handler wafer. The thin layer is separated from source material by Smart CutTM technology. GaN on Sapphire Advanced Substrates were used as seeds in HVPE-GaN growth. Unintentionally doped and silicon-doped GaN layers were crystallized. Free-standing HVPE-GaN was characterized by X-ray diffraction, defect selective etching, photo-etching, Hall method, Raman spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results were compared to HVPE-GaN grown on standard MOCVD-GaN/sapphire templates.
In this article homoepitaxial HVPE-GaN growth in directions other than  is described. Three crystallization runs on (11-20), (10-10), (20-21), and (20-2-1) seeds were performed. In each experiment a different carrier gas was used: N2, H2, and a 50% mixture of N2 and H2. Other conditions remained constant. An influence of the growth direction and carrier gas on growth rate and properties (morphology, structural quality, and free carrier concentration determined by Raman spectroscopy) of obtained crystals was investigated and discussed in details. For all crystallographic directions a lower growth rate was determined with hydrogen used as the carrier gas. Also, the highest level of dopants was observed for crystals grown under hydrogen. A possibility to obtain highly conductive GaN layers of high quality without an intentional doping is demonstrated.
HVPE crystallization on ammonothermaly grown GaN crystals (A-GaN) is described. Preparation of the (0001) surface of the A-GaN crystals to the epi-ready state is presented. The HVPE initial growth conditions are determined and demonstrated. An influence of a thickness and a free carrier concentration in the initial substrate on quality and mode of growth by the HVPE is examined. Smooth GaN layers of excellent crystalline quality, without cracks, and with low dislocation density are obtained.
Role and influence of impurities like: oxygen, indium and magnesium, on GaN crystals grown from liquid solution under high nitrogen pressure in multi-feed-seed configuration is shown. The properties of differently doped GaN crystals are presented. The crystallization method and the technology based on it (for obtaining high quality GaN substrates) are described in details. Some electronic and optoelectronic devices built on those GaN substrates are demonstrated.
Violet and blue Laser diodes, as well as highly efficient high-power Light Emitting Diodes (including any UV
emitters) can be constructed using low-dislocation-density freestanding GaN substrates, either produced as thick
HVPE layers on foreign substrates, or using direct methods of crystallization as ammonothermal one or high
pressure growth from the nitrogen solution in gallium. This paper shows some of the most most important issues
concerning application of such substrates. The first issue is the choice of the substrate thickness influencing the
accommodation of strain, cracking and bowing of the samples. In this point, a new way of prestressing the
substrate by lateral patterning will be presented. The second issue is the surface preparation either by mechanical
polishing and reactive ion etching, or mechano-chemical polishing, in particular, a distribution of defects
revealed by chemical etching will be discussed. Finally, the problem of substrate misorientation influencing the
further morphology and indium incorporation into InGaN quantum wells will be shown. For higher
misorientation of the substrates, the incorporation of indium decreases , but at the same time, the fluctuations of
indium increase giving blue-shifted, weaker and broader photoluminescence peaks.
Growth of GaN under pressure from solution in gallium results in almost dislocation free plate-like crystals but with size limited to app. 1-2 cm (lateral) and 100 μm (thickness) or up to about 1cm long needles. Deposition of GaN by HVPE on the pressure grown seeds allows stable crystallization (in terms of flatness of the crystallization front and uniformity of the new grown material) at a rate of about 100 μm/h on both types of seed crystals. However, in the thick GaN crystals grown on almost dislocation free plate-like substrates quite a high number of dislocations appears if the crystal thickness exceeds certain critical value. Since the critical thickness for defect generation is of the order of 100 μm, almost dislocation free layers (density below 104 cm-2) thinner than 100 μm can be grown. The most obvious further step is removing the substrate and continuation of the HVPE deposition on the free standing low dislocation density layer of sub-critical thickness. The pressure grown substrates were removed by mechanical polishing or conductivity sensitive electrochemical etching (for strongly n-type substrates). Then the HVPE low dislocation density GaN 1platelets were used as substrates for the growth of a few mm thick bulk GaN crystals. The crystals were characterized by defect selective etching of both polar (0001) and non-polar (10 -10) surfaces to check presence and distribution of structural defects. The X-ray measurements allowed concluding about character of strain and deformation in high pressure GaN-HVPE GaN system.
In this work the results of high pressure solution growth of GaN on various patterned substrates are presented. The growth on GaN/sapphire substrates patterned in GaN parallel stripes and with SixNy and Mo masks between stripes is studied and analyzed. The results are compared with the growth on patterned substrates without any mask, thus with a bare sapphire between stripes. The usefulness of tungsten and iridium for masking is also determined. The HVPE free standing GaN substrates with high stripes, up to 10 mm, are examined in details. The stripes growth modes are shown and described.
In this paper we discuss the applicability of high-pressure grown bulk GaN crystals as substrates for device oriented MOVPE homoepitaxy. First, we fabricated light emitting diodes as a step towards realization of our target device: a blue light emitting laser diode. Our homoepitaxialy grown LEDs are characterized by excellent electrical characteristics and very satisfactory optical properties. Building on the experience gained during this first stage of our research we have been able to fabricate pulse current operated laser diodes emitting light at a wavelength between 397 and 430 nm. We believe that this fast progress clearly demonstrates the usefulness of bulk GaN substrates for optoelectronic devices, especially for high power laser diodes.