Earth-observing satellite sensors are calibrated in the laboratory against blackbody and lamp-based uniform optical
radiation standards. These sources and additional characterization tests fail to approximate the spatially, spectrally, and
temporally complex scenes viewed on-orbit by these sensors. The lack of appropriate diagnostic tools limits the ability
of researchers to fully characterize and understand the radiometric performance of sensors before deployment. The
consequences of these limitations are that problems in a sensor's performance, e.g. optical crosstalk, scattered light,
earth-shine, are often first observed on-orbit. Advanced radiometric characterization artifacts, able to produce realistic
spectral distributions and spatial scenes in the laboratory, would enable more complete instrument characterization, with
the resulting potential benefit of improved on-orbit performance.