Photon creation and annihilation are two basic operators in quantum optics. Their experimental implementation provides a perfect toolbox for quantum state engineering. The simplest quantum states, which can be modified both by photon creation and annihilation are thermal states of light. Therefore, the multiphoton subtracted thermal states (MPSTS) draw attention of quantum optics experimentalists last decade. Despite its simplicity they serve as a good testing area for study of a number of quantum phenomena. In the current work we give a review of the recent works related to MPSTS: their theoretical description, preparation and measurement technique and their utilization as a testing area for studying some quantum phenomena like non-Gaussianity, Photonic Maxwell‟s Demon, Quantum Vampire and so on.
In this report we present a general approach for estimating quantum circuits by means of measurements. We apply the developed general approach for estimating the quality of superconducting and optical quantum chips. Using the methods of quantum states and processes tomography developed in our previous works, we have defined the adequate models of the states and processes under consideration.
Classical machine learning theory and theory of quantum computations are among of the most rapidly developing scientific areas in our days. In recent years, researchers investigated if quantum computing can help to improve classical machine learning algorithms. The quantum machine learning includes hybrid methods that involve both classical and quantum algorithms. Quantum approaches can be used to analyze quantum states instead of classical data. On other side, quantum algorithms can exponentially improve classical data science algorithm. Here, we show basic ideas of quantum machine learning. We present several new methods that combine classical machine learning algorithms and quantum computing methods. We demonstrate multiclass tree tensor network algorithm, and its approbation on IBM quantum processor. Also, we introduce neural networks approach to quantum tomography problem. Our tomography method allows us to predict quantum state excluding noise influence. Such classical-quantum approach can be applied in various experiments to reveal latent dependence between input data and output measurement results.
In the current work we address the problem of quantum process tomography (QPT) in the case of imperfect preparation and measurement of the states which are used for QPT. The fuzzy measurements approach which helps us to efficiently take these imperfections into account is considered. However, to implement such a procedure one should have a detailed information about the errors. An approach for obtaining the partial information about them is proposed. It is based on the tomography of the ideal identity gate. This gate could be implemented by performing the measurement right after the initial state preparation. By using the result of the identity gate tomography we were able to significantly improve further QPT procedures. The proposed approach has been tested experimentally on the IBM superconducting quantum processor. As a result, we have obtained an increase in fidelity from 89% to 98% for Hadamard transformation and from 77% to 95% for CNOT gate.
The quantum measurement procedure based on the Lorentz transformation formalism and weak perturbation of the system is considered. In the simple case of a single-qubit it turns out that one can perform 4-dimension pseudo-rotation along with ordinary 3-dimension rotations on the Bloch sphere. These pseudo-rotations are similar to the Lorentz transformation in special relativity theory. The extension of the Lorentz transformation for many-qubit systems is also considered. The quantum measurement protocols based on the Lorentz transformation are proposed. It has been shown that these protocols cease to form the decomposition of unity and could be superefficient providing the fidelity higher than any POVM-measurement protocol. However, one can perform the complement of the Lorentz protocol to POVMprotocol by an additional measurement operator. If the initial mixed state is close to the pure one this operator corresponds to weak perturbation of the state while the original Lorentz protocol sets the strong perturbations. As the result, the feedback provides an effective control of a quantum system introducing weak perturbations to the quantum state.
We consider realistic measurement systems, where measurements are accompanied by decoherence processes. The aim of this work is the construction of methods and algorithms for precise quantum measurements with fidelity close to the fundamental limit. In the present work the notions of ideal and non-ideal quantum measurements are strictly formalized. It is shown that non-ideal quantum measurements could be represented as a mixture of ideal measurements. Based on root approach the quantum state reconstruction method is developed. Informational accuracy theory of non-ideal quantum measurements is proposed. The monitoring of the amount of information about the quantum state parameters is examined, including the analysis of the information degradation under the noise influence. The study of achievable fidelity in non-ideal quantum measurements is performed. The results of simulation of fidelity characteristics of a wide class of quantum protocols based on polyhedrons geometry with high level of symmetry are presented. The impact of different decoherence mechanisms, including qubit amplitude and phase relaxation, bit-flip and phase-flip, is considered.
Three different levels of noisy quantum schemes modeling are considered: vectors, density matrices and Choi- Jamiolkowski related states. The implementations for personal computers and supercomputers are described, and the corresponding results are shown. For the level of density matrices, we present the technique of the fixed rank approximation and show some analytical estimates of the fidelity level.
The influence of amplitude and phase relaxation on evolution of quantum states within the formalism of quantum operations is considered. The model of polarizing qubits where noises are determined by the existence of spectral degree of freedom that shows up during the light propagation inside anisotropic mediums with dispersion is studied. Approximate analytic model for calculation of phase plate impact on polarizing state with dispersion influence taken into consideration is suggested.