The requirements for maximizing the external quantum efficiency of UV nitride LEDs are discussed. It is shown that as the chip wavelength progressively decreases, nitride epi growth on a sapphire substrate becomes advantageous in terms of light extraction. The epilayer requirements for UV LEDs dictate the growth of n-AlGaN, with increasing Al contents, and the growth of UV-transparent p-GaN. It is shown that MOCVD growth in a Emcore D-180 or Ganzilla reactor is ideal for meeting the stringent epilayer requirements. Increasing light extraction efficiency and wall-plug efficiency also requires optimization of the reflecting P-contact. The relative merits of Al- and Ag-based reflecting contacts are discussed. Performance data for UV LEDs on sapphire, for drive currents up to 700 mA is shown. Finally, a practical high power UV-based white lamp is demonstrated.