We present the integration status for 'imaka, the ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO) system on the University of Hawaii 2.2-meter telescope on Maunakea, Hawaii. This wide-field GLAO pathfinder system exploits Maunakea's highly confined ground layer and weak free-atmosphere to push the corrected field of view to ∼1/3 of a degree, an areal field approaching an order of magnitude larger than any existing or planned GLAO system, with a FWHM ∼ 0.33" in the visible and near infrared. We discuss the unique design aspects of the instrument, the driving science cases and how they impact the system, and how we will demonstrate these cases on the sky.
Over the past 15 years the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and private industry have been developing airborne LiDAR systems based on arrays of Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode (GmAPD) detectors capable of detecting a single photon. The extreme sensitivity of GmAPD detectors allows operation of LiDAR sensors at unprecedented altitudes and area collection rates in excess of 1,000 km<sup>2</sup>/hr. Up until now the primary emphasis of this technology has been limited to defense applications despite the significant benefits of applying this technology to non-military uses such as mapping, monitoring critical infrastructure and disaster relief. This paper briefly describes the operation of GmAPDs, design and operation of a Geiger-mode LiDAR, a comparison of Geiger-mode and traditional linear mode LiDARs, and a description of the first commercial Geiger-mode LiDAR system, the IntelliEarth™ Geospatial Solutions Geiger-mode LiDAR sensor.
The Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) is an innovative design for a wide-field imaging facility developed at the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy. The Pan-STARRS prototype telescope (PS1) is an Altitude over Azimuth telescope with an instrument rotator for its 1.4gigapixel camera.
Quartus Engineering Incorporated (Quartus) performed modal survey and operational vibration testing of the Pan-STARRS prototype telescope (PS1) to assess the impact of structural resonance and star tracking (i.e. actuated telescope motion) on image quality. The telescope's modal parameters: resonant frequencies, modes shapes, and damping ratios; were measured using an impact hammer and the acceleration response gathered from components with natural modes of vibration identified in a pre-test structural analysis that that were thought to affect image quality. A baseline characterization of the PS1's elastic performance was performed and compared with real-time structural modifications to determine how an individual component's stiffness affects the telescope's overall elastic performance. Operational vibration data collected at various on-sky tracking states was then evaluated using the newly measured modal properties and legacy optical measurements to develop a relationship between elastic motion and image quality.