We discuss several recent advances in the development of methodologies and techniques used to structurally and morphologically engineer chalcogenide (ChG) materials. We introduce two ChG patterning techniques both offering spatial resolution beyond the classical single-photon diffraction limit: multiphoton lithography and thermal scanning probe lithography (TSPL). The former was applied to produce nanoscale modifications in thermally deposited As2S3, and we realized gradient refractive index (GRIN) effective medium lens fabrication in multilayer As2S3-As2Se3 films with features as small as 120 nm using this approach. The GRIN lens was shown to be optically functional. ChG Ge-Sb-Se-Te (GSST) material was also explored for its potential as a phase-change material (PCM). We demonstrated nanoscale feature patterning using TSPL in PCMs with critical dimensions below 100 nm. In addition, new patterning methods, we also report solution processing of GSST PCMs as an alternative route for ChG film deposition. These new material processing and structuring techniques will offer new pathways for creating functional planar optical and photonic devices.