The approximate behavior of wavelets as differential operators is often considered as one of their most fundamental properties. In this paper, we investigate how we can further improve on the wavelet's behavior as differentiator. In particular, we propose semi-orthogonal differential wavelets. The semi-orthogonality condition ensures that wavelet spaces are mutually orthogonal. The operator, hidden within the wavelet, can be chosen as a generalized differential operator ∂<sup>γ</sup><sub>τ</sub>, for a γ-th order derivative with shift τ. Both order of derivation and shift can be chosen fractional. Our design leads us naturally to select the fractional B-splines as scaling functions. By putting the differential wavelet in the perspective of a derivative of a smoothing function, we find that signal singularities are compactly characterized by at most two local extrema of the wavelet coefficients in each subband. This property could be beneficial for signal analysis using wavelet bases. We show that this wavelet transform can be efficiently implemented using FFTs.
We use a comprehensive set of non-redundant orthogonal wavelet transforms and apply a denoising method called <i>SUREshrink</i> in each individual wavelet subband to denoise images corrupted by additive Gaussian white noise. We show that, for various images and a wide range of input noise levels, the orthogonal fractional (α, τ)-B-splines give the best peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), as compared to standard wavelet bases (Daubechies wavelets, symlets and coiflets). Moreover, the selection of the best set (α, τ) can be performed on the MSE estimate (SURE) itself, not on the actual MSE (Oracle). Finally, the use of complex-valued fractional B-splines leads to even more significant improvements; they also outperform the complex Daubechies wavelets.
We present complex rotation-covariant multiresolution families aimed for image analysis. Since they are complex-valued functions, they provide the important phase information, which is missing in the discrete wavelet transform with real wavelets. Our basis elements have nice properties in Hilbert space such as smoothness of fractional order α ε R<sup>+</sup>. The corresponding
filters allow a FFT-based implementation and thus provide a fast algorithm for the wavelet transform.