Observations are presented of the Volume scattering function (VSF) over the angular interval 20 to 160°, to maximum depth of about 90m in the Northern South China Sea in Case I and Case II waters. The observations were collected by using a self-developed in situ scattering instrument, which synchronously measured the attenuation coefficient, the VSFs in seven angles between 20 to 160° at 650nm, and the sea depths. General, the VSFs show a strong scattering in the forward, a broad scattering minimum in the scattering angular interval 90 to 126° and a weak increase in the rest of backward scattering angles. The analysis of the in situ data also indicates that the magnitude and the shape of the VSF change with areas and profile depths. From Case II to Case I, the forward scattering in 20°, which is mainly due to relatively large suspended particles, varied about three orders magnitude with highest values observed in Case II waters. In Case I waters, form the surface layer to the deeper layer, the magnitude of the VSFs firstly decreased with the depth, and then increased with the depth until reached a maximum scattering layer between 30 to 50m, and then decreased with depth until reached the maximum measurement depth. In Case II waters, the vertical profile distributions of VSF are complex, but in almost all profile, the magnitude of the VSFs firstly decreased with the depth, and then increased with the depth until reached the maximum measurement depth. <p> </p> The result of analysis also showed that in almost all of these stations, in the surface water, based on the light scattering by bubbles at shallow depths, the angle scattering at 60º-80º has a significant “shoulder”, and the wind plays a key role in the bubble scattering.
A shipboard ocean optical profiling system (SOOPS) has been developed to meet the needs of ocean color remote sensing. This system is an integrated one that provide measurements of optical properies of seawater. Specifications of SOOPS are described. Shading errors are modeled by Monte Carlo simulation, the field experimental data and some optical properties derived from these data are described and analyzed. Also presented in this paper is an optical buoy system underdeveloped, which can provide time series observations of both inherent optical properties and apparent optical properties of sea water. This system consistents of two buoys, master buoy and slave bouy. Several optical instruments are mouted on the buoys or on the mooring cable of the buoys to provide optical measurements at depths up to 70m. Self shading of the buoy has been simulated via Monte Carlo method. Effective anti-biofouling techniques are used for protecting biofouling on the optical window. Bluetooth radio is used for the communication between the master buoy and the slave buoy. An Inmarsat satellite telemetry system is used to transmit data daily. These optical systems are useful for both verification of ocean color satellite data and understanding the time changes of physical, biological and optical parameters.