The preparation and characterization of a type of ECD which was based on a cathodic EC polymer film, Poly [3, 3-dimethyl-3, 4-dihydro-2H-thieno [3, 4-b][1, 4] dioxepine] (PProDOT-Me2) is reported. A typical device was constructed by sandwiching a gel electrolyte between a PProDOT-Me2 EC film deposited on Indium Tin oxide (ITO) coated glass and a counter electrode which was also ITO glass coated by a Vanadium oxide (V2O5) thin film. The ECD has been characterized. Device contrast ratio, measured as Ε%T, was equal to 60%, and ranged from 2% to 62% between the colored and bleached state measured at 580 nm. A lifetime of over 100,000 cycles between the fully oxidized and fully reduced state has been achieved with only 6% change in the transmittance. The switching speed of a 2.5cm x 2.5cm ECD could be reached in 1 second between the bleached and colored state. The device also has a long open circuit memory. It can remain in the bleached or colored state without being energized for 30 days, and the change in transmittance is less than 6% in colored state. The cyclic voltammetry method was used to detect the moisture content in the gel electrolyte. ECDs of various dimensions were also prepared, 2.5cm x 2.5cm, 7.5cm x 7.5cm, 15cm x 15cm and 30cm x 30cm. The largest scale EC polymer device achieved is 30cm x 30cm. Low sheet resistance ITO glass and a thin-film silver deposition frame were applied to overcome the electric potential drop across the ITO glass surface.
A preparation and characterization of thin film vanadium oxide for use as a transparent ion storage layer/counter-electrode in organic ECDs is reported. A cathodic polymer film, Poly[3,3-dimethyle-3,4-dihydro-2H-thieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxepine] (PProDOT-Me2) was used as the electrochromic material. Counter-electrodes were prepared using a sol-gel method and deposited using electrophoresis. Indium Tin oxide (I TO) glass was used as an electrically conductive and transparent substrate. This paper focuses on optimized characteristics complimentary to a PProDOT-Me2 based electrochromic thin film. Gels of vanadium oxide were created from V2O5 powder mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and deionized water. Thin films were deposited onto a substrate submerged in the solution and subjected to cyclic voltammetry. Deposition parameters were varied and their effect on counter electrode characteristics investigated. The thin film exhibited a capacitance curve similar to the PProDOT-Me2 based EC film while maintaining a transmittance greater than 60% indicating that V2O5 is a suitable material. The ensuing 1 inch x 1 inch smart window exhibits a change in transmittance of 60% and a lifetime of over 100,000 cycles at a switching speed of 1 second. Larger sized devices of six and twelve inches were successfully prepared and switched between the dark blue and transparent states in less than 15 seconds.