Optically pumped polymer photonic crystal band-edge dye lasers are presented. The photonic crystal is a rectangular
lattice providing laser feedback as well as an optical resonance for the pump light. The lasers are defined in a thin film of
photodefinable Ormocore hybrid polymer, doped with the laser dye Pyrromethene 597. A compact frequency doubled
Nd:YAG laser (352 nm, 5 ns pulses) is used to pump the lasers from above the chip. The laser devices are 450 nm thick
slab waveguides with a rectangular lattice of 100 nm deep air holes imprinted into the surface. The 2-dimensional
rectangular lattice is described by two orthogonal unit vectors of length a and b, defining the ΓP and ΓX directions. The
frequency of the laser can be tuned via the lattice constant a (187 nm - 215 nm) while pump light is resonantly coupled
into the laser from an angle (θ) depending on the lattice constant b (355 nm). The lasers are fabricated in parallel on a 10
cm diameter wafer by combined nanoimprint and photolithography (CNP). CNP relies on a UV transparent quartz
nanoimprint stamp with an integrated metal shadow mask. In the CNP process the photonic crystal is formed by
mechanical deformation (imprinting) while the larger features are defined by UV exposure through the combined
We report reconfigurable optofluidic photonic crystal components in silicon-based membranes by controllably
infiltrating and removing fluid from holes of the photonic crystal lattice. Systematic characterizations of our fluidically defined
microcavities are presented, corresponding with the capability to increase or decrease the span of the fluid-filled
regions and thus alter their optical properties. We show initial images of single-pore fluid infiltration for holes of
diameter 265 nm. Furthermore, the infiltration process may employ a large range of optical fluids, adding more
flexibility to engineer device functionality. We discuss the great potential offered by this optofluidic scheme for
integrated optofluidic circuits, sensing, fluorescence and plasmonic applications.
We demonstrate post-processed and reconfigurable photonic crystal double-heterostructure nanocavities via selective fluid infiltration. We experimentally investigate the microfluidic structures via evanescent probing from a tapered fiber at telecommunications wavelengths. We demonstrate a cavity with quality factor Q = 4,300. The defect-writing technique we present does not require nanometer-scale alterations in lattice geometry and may be undertaken at any time after photonic crystal waveguide fabrication.
All optical switching devices based on kerr-effect, where light switches light, are enjoying renewed interest. The dream of ultra compact devices operating at very low power and integrable on a chip is entering the realm of reality thanks to the advent of photonic crystal, enabling high Q/V ratio. We show that marrying photonic crystal and a new class of highly non linear material, Chalcogenide glasses, is a very promising way to achieve an all-optical chip. We describe the fabrication techniques we have developed for manufacturing two-dimensional Chalcogenide photonic crystal. Different types of photonic crystal resonances are investigated. Coupling technique to chalcogenide based photonic crystal waveguides and cavities via tapered nanowires is thoroughly described. We demonstrate resonant guiding in a chalcogenide glass photonic crystal membrane using a fano probe technique. We observe strong resonances in the optical transmission spectra at normal incidence, associated with Fano coupling between free space and guided modes. We obtain good agreement with modeling results based on three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations, and identify the guided modes near the centre of the first Brillouin zone responsible for the main spectral features.
In this paper we review the fabrication and characterisation techniques of m icrostructured optical fibre (M OF) tapers, their fundam ental waveguiding properties and potential applications. W e fabricate photonic crystal fibre tapers without collapsing the air-holes, and confirm this along the taper with a non-invasive probing technique. We then describe the fundam ental property of such tapers associated with the leakage of the core m ode that leads to long wavelength loss. We also revisit the waveguiding properties in another form of tapered MOF photonic wires, which transition through waveguiding regimes associated with how strongly the mode is isolated from the external environment. We explore these regimes as a potential basis for evanescent field sensing applications, in which we can take advantage of controlled airhole collapse as an extra dimension to these photonic wires.