While the development of perovskite-based semitransparent solar cells with competitive levels of transparency and efficiency offer a promising perspective towards building integrated photovoltaics, the color perception of perovskite films is of limited visual aesthetics, compromising their applicability to facades and windows. In the present work, we develop a technique to grow crystalline, ultrathin perovskite films through a solvent-solvent extraction process featuring full crystallization within few seconds at RT and under 45%RH environmental conditions. As a result we obtained the highest combination of efficiency and transparency to date for perovskite solar cells. We further improved the visual aesthetics of our devices by implementing dielectric mirrors. EQE and UV-Vis spectroscopic measurements are performed to fully characterize the device stacks featuring four different dielectric mirror configurations. By customizing the mirror to the near-IR absorption region of the perovskite, we could increase the Jsc by 18.7%, yielding a light blue appearance and showing 31.4% transparency at 3.5% electrical power efficiency. Both, the solar cells and the dielectric mirrors are fully-solution processed under ambient conditions and are easily transferable to roll-to-roll upscaling. Optical simulations support our experimental findings and provide a global perspective emulating full device stack appearance covering all the colors in the visible spectra. Transparency, photocurrent density contribution and chromaticity are finally simulated and analyzed. Based on the detailed analysis, we give an outlook on the performance – color – transparency roadmap for perovskite solar cells.
Building integrated thin film solar cells are a strategy for future eco-friendly power generation. Such solar cells have to be semi-transparent, long-term stable and show the potential to be fabricated by a low-cost production process. Organic photovoltaics are a potential candidate because an absorber material with its main absorption in the infrared spectral region where the human eye is not sensitive can be chosen. We can increase the number of absorbed photons, at the same time, keep the transparency almost constant by using a dielectric, wavelength-selective mirror. The mirror reflects only in the absorption regime of the active layer material and shows high transparencies in the spectral region around 550 nm where the human eye is most sensitive. We doctor bladed a fully solution processed dielectric mirror at low temperatures below 80 °C. Both inks, which are printed alternatingly are based on nanoparticles and have a refractive index of 1.29 or 1.98, respectively, at 500 nm. The position and the intensity of the main reflection peak can be easily shifted and thus adjusted to the solar cell absorption spectrum. Eventually, the dielectric mirror was combined with different organic solar cells. For instance, the current increases by 20.6 % while the transparency decreases by 23.7 % for the low band gap absorber DPP and silver nanowires as top electrode. Moreover we proved via experiment and optical simulations, that a variation of the active layer thickness and the position of the main reflection peak affect the transparency and the increase in current.