We present the optical design, the error budget, the differential distortion budget and the baffle design of the Telescopio San Pedro Mártir f/5 Nasmyth configuration. The TSPM in its Cassegrain configuration will be assembled around a closed design (converted MMT/Magellan telescope) with most of its optical parts already manufactured. To anticipate for future possible upgrades, the project includes the design of an extreme f/5 Nasmyth configuration. Our optical design demonstrates the feasibility of the configuration, closes the interfaces to the telescope, provides a full picture of the expected performance, and identifies the critical points involved in the configuration.
We present in this article some of the techniques applied at the Instituto de Astronomía of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (IA-UNAM) to the mechanical structural design for astronomical instruments. With this purpose we use two recent projects developed by the Instrumentation Department. The goal of this work is to give guidelines about support structures design for achieving a faster and accurate astronomical instruments design. The main guidelines that lead all the design stages for instrument subsystems are the high-level requirements and the overall specifications. From these, each subsystem needs to get its own requirements, specifications, modes of operation, relative position, tip/tilt angles, and general tolerances. Normally these values are stated in the error budget of the instrument. Nevertheless, the error budget is dynamic, it is changing constantly. Depending on the manufacturing accuracy achieved, the error budget is again distributed. That is why having guidelines for structural design helps to know some of the limits of tolerances in manufacture and assembly. The error budget becomes then a quantified way for the interaction between groups; it is the key for teamwork.
COATLI is a new instrument and telescope that will provide 0.3 arcsec FWHM images from 550 to 920 nm over a large fraction of the sky. It consists of a robotic 50-cm telescope with a diffraction-limited imager. The imager has a steering mirror for fast guiding, a blue channel using an EMCCD from 400 to 550 nm to measure image motion, a red channel using a standard CCD from 550 to 920 nm, and an active optics system based on a deformable mirror to compensate static aberrations in the red channel. Since the telescope is small, fast guiding will provide diffraction-limited image quality in the red channel over a large fraction of the sky, even in relatively poor seeing. The COATLI telescope will be installed at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional in Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, México, in 2016 and will initially operate with a simple interim imager. The definitive COATLI instrument will be installed in 2017. In this work we present the general optomechanical and control electronics design of COATLI.
COATLI will provide 0.3 arcsec FWHM images from 550 to 900 nm over a large fraction of the sky. It consists of a robotic 50-cm telescope with a diffraction-limited fast-guiding imager. Since the telescope is small, fast guiding will provide diffraction-limited image quality over a field of at least 1 arcmin and with coverage of a large fraction of the sky, even in relatively poor seeing. The COATLI telescope will be installed at the at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional in Sierra San Pedro Mártir, México, during 2016 and the diffraction-limited imager will follow in 2017.
OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy) was the optical Day One instrument
for the 10.4m Spanish telescope GTC. It is installed at the Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos (La Palma, Spain).
This instrument has been operational since March-2009 and covers from 360 to 1000 nm. OSIRIS observing modes
include direct imaging with tunable and conventional filters, long slit and low resolution spectroscopy. OSIRIS wide
field of view and high efficiency provide a powerful tool for the scientific exploitation of GTC. OSIRIS was developed
by a Consortium formed by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the Instituto de Astronomía de la
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (IA-UNAM). The latter was in charge of the optical design, the manufacture
of the camera and collaboration in the assembly, integration and verification process. The IAC was responsible for the
remaining design of the instrument and it was the project leader. The present paper considers the development of the
instrument from its design to its present situation in which is in used by the scientific community.
ESOPO will be a spectrograph of medium resolution for the 2.1 m telescope of the National Observatory at San
Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico. It has been developed by the Instituto de Astronomia of the Universidad
Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (IA-UNAM). The main goal of this instrument is to modernize the capabilities
of making science with that particular telescope. It is planned to achieve a spectral resolution between 500 and
5000. ESOPO is split into two arms; each one specialized in a specific wavelength range covering together all the
visible light. A very important issue in spectrographs is to avoid inside thermal gradients. Different temperatures
in the optical elements produce mechanical movements and image quality degradation during an exposition. The
error budget analysis developed for ESOPO allows establishing the required limits for temperature gradients. In
this paper is described the thermal analysis of the spectrograph, including specifications, finite element models,
thermal equations and expected thermal gradients.
The structure of the spectrograph ESOPO is the stiff mount that will maintain fixed all optics elements, electronics and
mechanical subsystems. The ESOPO spectrograph is a project of the "Instituto de Astronomia de la Universidad
Nacional Autonoma de Mexico" (IAUNAM) to upgrade its 2.1m telescope as a competitive facility for the next decade.
The scientific purpose is to obtain a modern high efficient intermediate-low dispersion spectrograph optimized for the
3500 - 9000 Å spectral interval with a spectral resolution of 500 ≤ R ≤ 5000. It is to be used at the cassegrain f/7.5 focus
of the 2.1 m telescope for general astronomical purposes. This work presents the mechanical design process and the form
in which the structure was verified to comply with the ESOPO's top level image quality and stability requirements. The
latter was not a lineal process. The way we resolved it is to run FEAs on the complete system and with the instrument in
different operation positions during a normal cycle of observations. These results are validated through the error budget
of the ESOPO. The structure is currently under construction.
This work presents the specifications, requirements, design, finite element analysis and results of the assembled
subsystems: slit-mask, and the acquisition and guiding zone mechanisms of the ESOPO spectrograph. This spectrograph
is a project of the Institute of Astronomy, National University of Mexico.
In this paper we present the Medium Resolution Spectrograph ESOPO, an instrument designed and built for the 2.1m
Telescope at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir. We discuss the Scientific Goals and the High
Level Requirements necessary to translate these goals to optical, mechanical and control specifications. We make an
introduction to its conceptual dual-arm design. The optical design is based on a non-classical configuration. The gratings
are illuminated in a conical mode working in a quasi Littrow configuration which has the advantage of optimizing the
efficiency and the pupil area on the grating. We show here the results of an experimental evaluation of the concept. The
optical design, mechanical structure, slit-mask and acquisition system, control systems, and a study of thermal
compensators, are discussed briefly, references to more extended contributions in these proceedings are made. The
management schematics of the project are briefly discussed.
The Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) is the first light instrument for
the 10.4 meters Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC). It's a 8.5 × 8.5 arc-min visible camera; a set of grisms provides low
resolution spectroscopic capability.
In this contribution the accessories and mountings for alignment are presented as well as the techniques used. Also, a
complete characterization of the system at laboratory for image quality, spectral and spatial resolution, and image
movement, etc. are shown.
In March 2004, the Commissioning Instrument (CI) for the GTC was accepted in the site of The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) located in La Palma Island, Spain. During the GTC integration phase, the CI will be a diagnostic tool for performance verification. The CI features four operation modes-imaging, pupil imaging, Curvature Wave-front sensing (WFS), and high resolution Shack-Hartmann WFS. The imaging mode permits to qualify the GTC image quality. The Pupil Mode permits estimate the GTC stray light. The segments figure, alignment and cophasing verifications are made with both WFS modes. In this work we describe the Commissioning Instrument and show some tests results obtained during the site acceptance process at the GTC site.
In March 2004 was accepted in the site of Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) in La Palma Island, Spain, the Commissioning Instrument (CI) for the GTC. During the GTC integration phase, the CI will be a diagnostic tool for performance verification. The CI features four operation modes-imaging, pupil imaging, Curvature Wave-front sensing (WFS), and high resolution Shack-Hartmann WFS. This instrument was built by the Instituto de Astronomia UNAM in Mexico City and the Centro de Ingenieria y Desarrollo Industrial (CIDESI) in Queretaro, Qro under a GRANTECAN contract after an international public bid. Some optical components were built by Centro de Investigaciones en Optica (CIO) in Leon Gto and the biggest mechanical parts were manufactured by Vatech in Morelia Mich. In this paper we made a general description of the CI and we relate how this instrument, build under international standards, was entirely made in Mexico.
We investigate the role of industrial replication in the construction of the next generation of spectrographs for large telescopes. In this paradigm, a simple base spectrograph unit is replicated to provide multiplex advantage, while the engineering costs are amortized over many copies. We argue that this is a cost-effective approach when compared to traditional spectrograph design, where each instrument is essentially a one-off prototype with heavy expenditure on engineering effort. As an example of massive replication, we present the design of, and the science drivers for, the Visible IFU Replicable Ultra-cheap Spectrograph (VIRUS). This instrument is made up of 132 individually small and simple spectrographs, each fed by a fiber integral field unit. The total VIRUS-132 instrument covers ~29 sq. arcminutes per observation, providing integral field spectroscopy from 340 to 570 nm, simultaneously, of 32,604 spatial elements, each 1 sq. arcsecond on the sky. VIRUS-132 will be mounted on the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope and fed by a new wide-field corrector with a science field in excess of 16.5 arcminutes diameter. VIRUS represents a new approach to spectrograph design, offering the science multiplex advantage of huge sky coverage for an integral field spectrograph, coupled with the engineering multiplex advantage of >102 spectrographs making up a whole.
A Camera Barrel, located in the OSIRIS imager/spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), is described in this article. The barrel design has been developed by the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Mexico (IA-UNAM), in collaboration with the Institute for Astrophysics of Canarias (IAC), Spain. The barrel is being manufactured by the Engineering Center for Industrial Development (CIDESI) at Queretaro, Mexico. The Camera Barrel includes a set of eight lenses (three doublets and two singlets), with their respective supports and cells, as well as two subsystems: the Focusing Unit, which is a mechanism that modifies the first doublet relative position; and the Passive Displacement Unit (PDU), which uses the third doublet as thermal compensator to maintain the camera focal length and image quality when the ambient temperature changes. This article includes a brief description of the scientific instrument; describes the design criteria related with performance justification; and summarizes the specifications related with misalignment errors and generated stresses. The Camera Barrel components are described and analytical calculations, FEA simulations and error budgets are also included.
We present the optical design of the f/1 camera for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Low Resolution Spectrograph Infrared Extension (LRS-J). This instrument extends the coverage of the LRS to 1300 nm by adding a fast cryogenic camera and volume holographic grisms (VPHG) to the LRS. This approach enables new science without the expense of building a complete new instrument. The camera is a catadioptric Maksutov type design, based on that of the optical LRS, that uses a HAWAII-1 1024x1024 detector. The design succeeds in imaging virtually all the light into one pixel over the HET field of view (FOV) and the wavelength range 900-1300 nm. We discuss the challenges of designing and manufacturing a fast camera for cryogenic use, and give details of the tolerance analysis.
The optics of OSIRIS, a versatile first generation imager/spectrograph, for the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), has undertaken its manufacturing phase. Brief descriptions of the design characteristics and expected performance are given. Current advances in a relevant optical study (throughput) are summarized as well as the status of manufactured lenses. A comparison with similar instruments for 6.5-m to 10-m class telescopes is performed, based on the instrument pupil size, collimator focal length, angular magnification, required field of view (FOV) and Lagrange Invariant. We finish with the compliance matrix of the top-level requirements, showing that OSIRIS represents a so far unique scientific opportunity of tunable imaging in this telescope class.
We present the dual IR camera CID for the 2.12 m telescope of the
Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Mexico, IA-UNAM. The system
consists of two separate cameras/spectrographs that operate in
different regions of the IR spectrum. In the near IR, CID comprises a direct imaging camera with wide band filters, a CVF, and a low resolution spectrograph employing an InSb 256 x 256 detector. In the mid IR, CID uses a BIB 128 x 128 detector for direct imaging in 10 and 20 microns. Optics and mechanics of CID were developed at IR-Labs
(Tucson). The electronics was developed by R. Leach (S. Diego). General design, construction of auxiliary optics (oscillating
secondary mirror), necessary modifications and optimization of
the electronics, and acquisition software were carried out at OAN/
UNAM. The compact design of the instruments allow them to share
a single dewar and the cryogenics system.
OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy) is the optical Day One instrument for the 10.4m Spanish telescope GTC to be installed in the Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos (La Palma, Spain). This instrument, operational in mid-2004, covers from 360 up to 1000 nm. OSIRIS observing modes include direct imaging with tunable and conventional filters, long slit and multiple object spectroscopy and fast spectrophotometry. The OSIRIS wide field of view, high efficiency and the new observing modes (tunable imaging and fast spectrophotometry) for 8-10m class telescopes will provide GTC with a powerful tool for their scientific exploitation. The present paper provides an updated overview of the instrument development, of some of the scientific projects that will be tackled with OSIRIS and of the general requirements driving the optical and mechanical design.
Tight stability requirements for the imager/spectrograph OSIRIS (a Day One optical instrument for the GTC telescope) demand a careful treatment of thermal effects within the OSIRIS camera. Mostly due to the thermal response of refraction indices of its glasses (and not so much to curvature, spacing or thickness variations of the lenses), the camera optics alone degrades beyond requirements the image quality and plate scale under the expected ambient temperature variations (about 1.8 °C/hour). Thermal effects and thermal compensator studies of the OSIRIS camera are first summarized, before discussing how the motion (of a few microns per °C) of the 3rd camera doublet, as a sole compensator, practically eliminates thermal influences on both image quality and plate scale. A concept for the passive implementation of the compensator is also discussed.
During the GTC integration phase, the Commissioning Instrument (CI) will be a diagnostic tool for performance verification. The CI features four operation modes-imaging, pupil imaging, Curvature WFS, and high resolution Shack-Hartmann WFS. After the GTC Commissioning we also plan to install a Pyramid WFS. This instrument can therefore serve as a test bench for comparing co-phasing methods for ELTs on a real segmented telescope. In this paper we made a general instrument overview.
The Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) is a first generation instrument for the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) that will be operational in mid-2004. On such a large telescope, OSIRIS is the first instrument to use tunable filters, combined with charge shuffling capabilities, covering the wavelength range (365 - 1000 nm). To be installed first at a Nasmyth platform, OSIRIS is also compact enough to fit in the Cassegrain focus envelope.
This paper discusses the OSIRIS optical design process based on the classical collimator plus camera focal reducer configuration concept. To provide a wide mode and resolution versatility, several combinations of grisms, color, order sorter, interference and tunable filters are attainable in the collimated beam, near the pupil. The OSIRIS geometry, specifications, features, and performance are briefly discussed. Subsection (#5) is centered on the pupil size to calculate angular magnification and collimator FOV. These values are compared with those taken from similar instruments for 6.5-m to 10-m telescopes.
This contribution is meant to share our experience on the optical design issue with colleagues not necessarily familiarized with astronomical instrumentation design. A previous approach on the OSIRIS optical design and two more general descriptions are available.
The Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) will be a Day-One instrument of the Spanish 10.4 m telescope Gran Telescopio Canarias, whose first light is planned for 2002. GTC will be installed at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma, Spain. OSIRIS three primary modes are imaging and low resolution long slit and multiple object spectroscopy. The instrument is designed to operate from 365 to 1000 nm with a field of view of 7 by 7 arcminutes and a maximum spectral resolution of 5000. Among the OSIRIS main features are the use of tunable filters for direct imaging, the use of Volume Phase Holographic Gratings as dispersive elements for spectroscopy, and the implementation of an articulated camera to provide maximum spectroscopic efficiency and versatility. Here we present a general description and an overview of the main instrument characteristics.
The Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) is being designed as a Day-One optical instrument for the 10.4 mts Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC). It will be the first instrument, on such a large telescope, belonging to a new class of tunable spectrographs, implementing last advances in Volume Phase Holographic Gratings and tunable imaging combined with charge shuffling capabilities, covering the optical wavelength range. OSIRIS< to be first mounted dat one of GTC's Nasmyth platforms, is designed to be compact enough to fit at the Cassegrain focus as well. The optical design is devised around the classical concept of collimator plus camera. The collimator is an off axis ellipsoidal mirror, while the f/2.475 camera consists of several groups of all spherical surfaces lenses, forming a unit together with the detector rand cryocooler. A folder mirror prevents interference with the GTC acquisition and guiding subsystem. Several combinations of color and interference filters. TFs and VPHs are available in the collimated beam, near the pupil, to provide the wide versatility of required observing modes and resolutions. Short descriptions of the OSIRIS geometry, specifications, design strategy and the optical design are presented.
We present the Mexican Infrared-Optical New Technology Telescope Project (TIM). The design and construction of a 7.8 m telescope, which will operate at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in San Pedro Martir, B.C. (Mexico), are described. The site has been selected based on seeing and sky condition measurements taken for several years. The f/1.5 primary mirror consists of 19 hexagonal off-axis parabolic Zerodur segments. The telescope structure will be alt-az, lightweight, low cost, and high stiffness. It will be supported by hydrostatic bearings. The single secondary will complement a Ritchey-Chretien f/15 design, delivering to Cassegrain focus instrumentation. The telescope will be infrared optimized to allow observations ranging from 0.3 to 20 microns. The TIM mirror cell provides an independent and full active support system for each segment, in order to achieve both, phasing capability and very high quality imaging (0.25 arcsec).
We describe the configuration and operation modes of the IR camera/spectrograph: TEQUILA based on a 1024 X 1024 HgCdTe FPA. The optical system will allow three possible modes of operation: direct imaging, low and medium resolution spectroscopy and polarimetry. The basic system is being designed to consist of the following: 1) A LN2 dewar that allocates the FPA together with the preamplifiers and a 24 filter position cylinder. 2) Control and readout electronics based on DSP modules linked to a workstation through fiber optics. 3) An opto-mechanical assembly cooled to -30 degrees that provides an efficient operation of the instrument in its various modes. 4) A control module for the moving parts of the instrument. The opto-mechanical assembly will have the necessary provision to install a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer and an adaptive optics correction system. The final image acquisition and control of the whole instrument is carried out in a workstation to provide the observer with a friendly environment. The system will operate at the 2.1 m telescope at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in San Pedro Martir, B.C. (Mexico), and is intended to be a first-light instrument for the new 7.8m Mexican IR-Optical Telescope.
We are developing an instrument to study the morphology and kinematics of the molecular gas and its interrelationship with the ionized gas in star forming regions, planetary nebulae and supernova remnants in our Galaxy and other galaxies, as well as the kinematics of the IR emitting gas in starburst and interacting galaxies. This instrument consists of a water-free fused silica scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer optimized in the spectral range from 1.5 to 2.4 micrometers with high spectral resolution. It will be installed in the collimated beam of a nearly 2:1 focal reducer, designed for the Cassegrain focus of the 2.1 m telescope of the San Pedro Martir National Astronomical Observatory. Mexico, in its f/7.5 configuration, yielding a field of view of 11.6 arc-min. It will provide direct images as well as interferograms to be focused on a 1024 X 1024 HAWAII array, covering a spectral range from 0.9 to 2.5 micrometers .
The kinematics of the interstellar medium may be studied by means of a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (SFPI). This allows the coverage of a wider field of view with higher spatial and spectral resolution than when a high-dispersion classical spectrograph is used. The system called PUMA consists of a focal reducer and a SFPI installed in the 2.1 m telescope of the San Pedro Martir National Astronomical Observatory (SPM), Mexico, in its f/7.5 configuration. It covers a field of view of 10 arcmin providing direct images as well as interferograms which are focused on a 1024 X 1024 Tektronix CCD, covering a wide spectral range. It is considered the integration of other optical elements for further developments. The optomechanical system and the developed software allow exact, remote positioning of all movable parts and control the FPI scanning and data acquisition. The parallelism of the interferometer plates is automatically achieved by a custom method. The PUMA provides spectral resolutions of 0.414 Angstrom and a free spectral range of 19.8 Angstrom. Results of high quality that compete with those obtained by similar systems in bigger telescopes, are presented.
The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) is a revolutionary large telescope of 9.2 meter aperture, located in West Texas at McDonald Observatory. First light was obtained on December 11, 1996. The start of scientific operations is expected in the late summer of 1998. The Low Resolution Spectrograph [LRS, an international collaboration between the University of Texas at Austin (UT), the Instituto de Astronomia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (IAUNAM), Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximillians-Universitat, Munich (USM), and Georg- August-Universitat, Gottingen (USG)] is a high throughput, imaging spectrograph which rides on the HET tracker at prime focus. The LRS will be the first HET facility instrument. The remote location and the tight space and weight constraints make the LRS a challenging instrument, built on a limited budget. The optics were partially constructed in Mexico at IAUNAM, the mechanics in Germany, and the camera and CCD system in Texas. The LRS is a grism spectrograph with three modes of operation: imaging, longslit, and multi-object. The field of view of the HET is 4 arcmin in diameter, and the LRS will have a 13-slitlet Multi Object Spectroscopy (MOS) unit covering this field. The MOS unit is based on miniature components and is remotely configurable under computer control. Resolving powers between R equals (lambda) /(Delta) (lambda) approximately 600 and 3000 with a 1 arcsecond wide slit will be achieved with a variety of grisms, of which two can be carried by the instrument at any one time. The CCD is a Ford Aerospace 3072 X 1024 device with 15 micrometer pixels, and the image scale is approximately 0.25 arcsec per pixel. Here we present a detailed description of the LRS, and provide an overview of the optical and mechanical aspects of its design (which are discussed in detail elsewhere in these proceedings). Fabrication, assembly, and testing of the LRS will be completed by mid 1998. First light for the LRS on the HET is expected in the summer of 1998.
The Hobby Eberly Telescope (HET) is a revolutionary large telescope of 9.2 meter aperture, which is currently undergoing commissioning at McDonald Observatory. First light was obtained on December 11, 1996. Scientific operations are expected in 1998. The Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS, a collaboration between the University of Texas at Austin, the Instituto de Astronomia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximillians-Universitat, Munich and Georg-August-Universitat, Gottingen) is a high throughput, imaging spectrograph which rides on the HET tracker at prime focus. The LRS will be the first HET facility instrument. The unique nature of the HET has led to interesting optical design solutions for the LRS, aimed at high performance and simplicity. The LRS is a grism spectrograph with a refractive collimator and a catadioptric f/1.4 camera. The beam size is 140 mm, resulting in resolving powers between (lambda) /(Delta) (lambda) approximately 600 and 3000 with a 1 arcsec wide slit. The LRS optics were designed and partially fabricated at the IAUNAM. We present a description of the LRS specifications and optical design, and describe the manufacturing process.
The system called PUMA is an instrument consisting of a focal reducer coupled to a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (SFPI), which is being developed for the Observatorio Astronomicao Nacional at San Pedro Martir, B.C. It will be installed at the 2.0 m Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a focal ratio of F/7.9. It has interference filters, a calibration system, and field diaphragms. The SFPI can be moved out of the optical path in order to acquire direct images. The images produced by this instrument will be focused on an optoelectronic detector, a CCD, or a Mepsicron, depending on the spectral range used.