We report on an experimental study of the incubation effect during irradiation of stainless steel targets with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses at 1030 nm wavelength and 100 kHz repetition rate. The bursts were generated by splitting the pristine 650-fs laser pulses using an array of birefringent crystals which provided time separations between sub-pulses in the range from 1.5 ps to 24 ps. We measured the threshold fluence in Burst Mode, finding that it strongly depends on the bursts features. The comparison with Normal Pulse Mode revealed that the existing models introduced to explain the incubation effect during irradiation with trains of undivided pulses has to be adapted to describe incubation during Burst Mode processing. In fact, those models assume that the threshold fluence has a unique value for each number of impinging pulses in NPM, while in case of BM we observed different values of threshold fluence for fixed amount of sub-pulses but different pulse splitting. Therefore, the incubation factor coefficient depends on the burst features. It was found that incubation effect is higher in BM than NPM and that it increases with the number of sub-pulses and for shorter time delays within the burst. Two-Temperature-Model simulations in case of single pulses and bursts of up to 4 sub-pulses were performed to understand the experimental results.
We report on an experimental investigation of ultrafast laser ablation of silicon with bursts of pulses. The pristine 1030nm-wavelength 200-fs pulses were split into bursts of up to 16 sub-pulses with time separation ranging from 0.5ps to 4080ps. The total ablation threshold fluence was measured depending on the burst features, finding that it strongly increases with the number of sub-pulses for longer sub-pulse delays, while a slowly increasing trend is observed for shorter separation time. The ablation depth per burst follows two different trends according to the time separation between the sub-pulses, as well as the total threshold fluence. For delays shorter than 4ps it decreases with the number of pulses, while for time separations longer than 510ps, deeper craters were achieved by increasing the number of subpulses in the burst, probably due to a change of the effective penetration depth.
Femtosecond-pulsed laser welding of transparent materials on a micrometer scale is a versatile tool for the fabrication and assembly of electronic, electromechanical, and especially biomedical micro-devices. In this paper, we report on microwelding of two transparent layers of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with femtosecond laser pulses at 1030 nm in the MHz regime. We aim at exploiting localized heat accumulation to weld the two layers without any preprocessing of the sample and any intermediate absorbing media, by focusing fs-laser pulses at the interface.
The modifications produced by the focused laser beam into the bulk material have been firstly investigated depending on the laser process parameters aiming to produce continuous melting. Results have been evaluated based on heat accumulation models. Finally, fs-laser welding of PMMA samples have been successfully demonstrated and tested by leakage tests for application in direct laser assembly of microfluidic devices.