One method for making the alternating phase-shift mask involves cutting a trench into the quartz of the mask using an anisotropic dry etch, followed by an isotropic etch to move the corners of the trench underneath the chrome to minimize problems caused by diffraction at the bottom corners of the phase-trench. This manufacturing method makes the addition of subresolution scattering bars and serifs problematic, because the amount of the undercut causes chrome lifting of these small features. Adding an additional anisotropically etched trench to both cut and uncut regions is helpful, but the etch does not move the trench corners under the chrome and result in a loss to intensity and image contrast. At 248 nm illumination and 4X magnification, our work shows that a combination of 240 nm dual-trench and 5 nm to 10 nm undercut produces images with equal intensity between shifted and unshifted regions without loss of image contrasts. This paper demonstrates optical proximity correction for doing 100 nm, 120 nm, 140 nm and 180 nm lines of varying pitch for a simple alternating phase-shift mask, with no dual-trench or undercut. Then the electromagnetic field simulator, TEMPEST, is used to find the best combination of dual-trench depth and amount of undercut for an alternating phase-shift mask. Phase measurement using 248 nm light and depth measurement of thirty-six unique combinations of dual-trench and phase-shift trench are shown. Based on modeling and experimental results, recommendations for making a fine tuned dual-trench 248 nm mask, as well as an extension of the dual-trench alternating phase-shift technique to 193 nm lithography, are made.
This paper describes how the new Hoya Micro Mask APTCON 4045 optical mask processor was used in conjunction with the ETEC CORE 2564 reticle writer in the optimization of a 64 Mb DRAM process. Exposure conditions, develop/etch parameters, and processor variables were individually optimized; results from the ensuing process are analyzed. The major components of the Convac-APT APTCON 4045 processor are described. The system description, physical layout, automation, chemistry handling, and adjustment versatility are all covered. Cassette-to-cassette full automation is used, in support of an extremely tight control over process variability. Fully automatic chemistry handling is implemented, with supply auto- switch, in an isolated safety enclosure. The on-line chemistry and D.I. water are kept under accurately controlled conditions. Great adjustment versatility in the chemistry dispense is provided through unusually maneuverable devices. In addition, other process variables (such as the air velocity and spin speed) can be controlled with unique fineness and range.
In order to be able to write 64 megabit DRAM reticles, to prepare to write 256 megabit DRAM reticles and in general to meet the current and next generation mask and reticle quality requirements, Hoya Micro Mask (HMM) installed in 1991 the first CORE-2564 Laser Reticle Writer from Etec Systems, Inc. The system was delivered as a CORE-2500XP and was subsequently upgraded to a 2564. The CORE (Custom Optical Reticle Engraver) system produces photomasks with an exposure strategy similar to that employed by an electron beam system, but it uses a laser beam to deliver the photoresist exposure energy. Since then the 2564 has been tested by Etec's standard Acceptance Test Procedure and by several supplementary HMM techniques to insure performance to all the Etec advertised specifications and certain additional HMM requirements that were more demanding and/or more thorough than the advertised specifications. The primary purpose of the HMM tests was to more closely duplicate mask usage. The performance aspects covered by the tests include registration accuracy and repeatability; linewidth accuracy, uniformity and linearity; stripe butting; stripe and scan linearity; edge quality; system cleanliness; minimum geometry resolution; minimum address size and plate loading accuracy and repeatability.