Remote Hyperspectral and Multispectral sensors have been developed using modern CCD and CMOS fabrication
techniques combined with advanced dichroic filters. The resulting sensors are more cost effective while maintaining the
high performance needed in remote sensing applications. A single device can contain multiple imaging areas tailored to
different multispectral bandwidths in a highly cost effective and reliable package. This paper discusses a five band
visible to near IR scanning sensor. By bonding advanced dichroic filters onto the cover glass and directly in the imaging
path a highly efficient multispectral sensor is achieved. Up to 12,000 linear pixel arrays are possible1 with this advanced
filter technology approach. Individual imaging areas on the device are designed to have unique pixel sizes and clocking
to enable tailored imaging performance for the individual spectral bands. Individual elements are also based on high
resolution Time Delay and Integration technology2,3 (TDI) to maximize sensitivity and throughput. Additionally for
hyperspectral imagers, a split frame CCD design is discussed using high sensitivity back side illuminated (BSI)
processes that can achieve high quantum efficiency. As these sensors are used in remote sensing applications, device
robustness and radiation tolerance was required.
A new-generation full-frame 36x48 mm2 48Mp CCD image sensor with vertical anti-blooming for professional digital
still camera applications is developed by means of the so-called building block concept. The 48Mp devices are formed
by stitching 1kx1k building blocks with 6.0 µm pixel pitch in 6x8 (hxv) format. This concept allows us to design four
large-area (48Mp) and sixty-two basic (1Mp) devices per 6" wafer. The basic image sensor is relatively small in order to
obtain data from many devices. Evaluation of the basic parameters such as the image pixel and on-chip amplifier
provides us statistical data using a limited number of wafers. Whereas the large-area devices are evaluated for aspects
typical to large-sensor operation and performance, such as the charge transport efficiency. Combined with the usability
of multi-layer reticles, the sensor development is cost effective for prototyping.
Optimisation of the sensor design and technology has resulted in a pixel charge capacity of 58 ke- and significantly
reduced readout noise (12 electrons at 25 MHz pixel rate, after CDS). Hence, a dynamic range of 73 dB is obtained.
Microlens and stack optimisation resulted in an excellent angular response that meets with the wide-angle photography
This paper gives an overview of featuring possibilities in CCD imagers. By careful manipulation of charge packets in CCD imagers, a CCD can often be read out in different modes by simply modifying the applied pulse patterns. Since featuring is done in the charge domain and not in the voltage domain, it offers the best possible performance with respect to noise, dynamic range and signal-to-noise ratio.
This paper gives an overview of the requirements for, and current state-of-the-art of, CCD and CMOS imagers for use in digital still photography. Four market segments will be reviewed: mobile imaging, consumer "point-and-shoot cameras", consumer digital SLR cameras and high-end professional camera systems. The paper will also present some challenges and innovations with respect to packaging, testing, and system integration.
A 28-M pixel, full-frame CCD imager with 7.2×7.2 μm2 pixel size and Bayer RGB color pattern was developed for use in professional applications. As unique option a RGB compatible binning feature was designed into this sensor. This gives the possibility to exchange resolution for sensitivity, read-out speed and signal-to-noise ratio. This paper presents the device architecture, RGB binning principle and evaluation results of the overall sensor performance. The performed device simulations and the evaluation results of the RGB binning feature are described in detail.
To meet the continuous demand for more resolution in professional digital imaging, 22M pixels, 645-film format full-frame CCD image sensor was developed as an improved upgrade for an existing 11M pixel 35 mm CCD. This paper presents the device requirements, architecture, modes of operation, and evaluation results of the performance improvements.