We design and fabricate a 60 × 60 GaN based achromatic meta-lens array to capture multidimensional optical information of the scene. The working wavelength is from 400 nm to 660 nm which covers the entire visible light range. The highest efficiency of single metalens can be up to 74% at a wavelength of 420 nm, while the average efficiency is approximately 39% over the whole working bandwidth. The light field images and the depth information of objects can be determined by reorganizing the patches of sub-images and calculating the disparity of neighboring sub-images, respectively. The depth information can be used to optimize the patch sizes to render the all-in-focus image without artifacts. Our work provides several advantages associated with light field imaging: elimination of chromatic aberration, polarization selectivity and compatibility of the semiconductor process.
Optical meta-devices using meta-surfaces which composed of artificial nanostructures are able to manipulate the electromagnetic phase and amplitude at will. The great advantages of meta-devices are their new properties, lighter weight, small size, high efficiency, better performance, broadband operation, lower energy consumption, and CMOS compatibility for mass production. Given the demand for photonics, many optical meta-devices for the application and control of incident light are being quickly developed for beam deflection and reflection, polarization control and analysis, holography, second-harmonic generation, laser, tunability, imaging, absorption, focusing of light, multiplex color routing and light-field sensing. The design, fabrication and application of the novel optical meta-devices are reported in this talk.
We propose a Light-sheet fluorescent microscopy (LSFM) system with a flat metalens, which is used to replace the bulky illuminating components. The metalens is a diffractive optics elements (DOEs) composed of various gallium nitride (GaN) nanopillar for light-sheet generation, and it can be readily integrated in existing LSFM systems. In contrast to the traditional LSFM system, the metalens-based system is more compact and flexible, and its sectioning capability is comparable to the conventional illumination arm in LSFMs. The live fluorescent-labeled transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) are exploited to verify the performance of this system. The intensity profile of oocytes in C. elegans with cellular resolution level was obtained.
Metalenses have great ability in light focusing and can be tailored to exhibit varied functionalities for ultrathin optical applications. Here, we demonstrate a GaN metalens array which can be regarded as a light shaping generator for the structured light generation. The metalens array consists of 60 x 60 metalenses which can project a 42 cm x 42 cm light spots area at the distance of 1.5 M. The distance can be estimated by identifying the deformation of light spot distribution. The advantages of this metadevice is light weight, small, ultrathin, durable and easy to compact with other devices. Our design provides a new avenue for the structured light applications such as distance sensing and 3D environmental construction.
Optical polarization is an important characteristic of electromagnetic waves that has a significant impact on number of applications, such as information delivery, 3D imaging, and quantum computation. Metasurfaces, sort of artificially designed planar structure, have attracted immense attention due to their ability to control the amplitude and phase of electromagnetic waves at a subwavelength scale. Metasurfaces hold promise for the fields of nonlinear dynamics, light beam shaping, quantum computation, etc. Beside these promising applications, metasurfaces can also be used for versatile polarization generation in a compact device dimension. Therefore, metasurfaces can be used for creation of flat optical devices with novel functionalities. In this talk, I will discuss how we can generate versatile polarization states by using metasurfaces. Firstly, I will describe geometric phase metasurfaces, which can be used for passive polarization control. We demonstrate six metasurface chips integrated on a single sample, in which each chip is responsible for generating one specific polarization state thus generating versatile polarization sates. Subsequently, I will discuss a scheme of active polarization modulation by using indium tin oxide (ITO)-based tunable metasurfaces. By suitably biasing the metasurface, the linearly-polarized incident light can be actively converted to a cross-polarized, circularly-polarized or elliptically-polarized light.
Here we demonstrated a GaN metalens array to project a light spots array which can be a light shape generator in the structure light applications. The advantages of this metadevice is light weight, small, ultrathin, durable and easy to compact with other device. The light spot size is a function with the distance of detector. A metalens array which arranged by the single metalens diameter is 20 μm projected a light spots array whose diameter of single light spot is 2.22 um in average at the distance is 150 cm far away and. Our design provides a new avenue for the structure light application such as distance sensing and 3D environmental construction.
Metasurfaces, the two-dimensional (2D) sub-wavelength artificial structures, where light is not required to have a deep penetration, have shown the ability to tailor the amplitude, phase and polarization of light. The functionalities of various optical components can be realized by metasurface-based design, such as beam splitters, filters, waveplates, deflector, lens and holograms. Here, we propose a new type of metasurface based on the concept of ultra-thin film interference and experimentally demonstrate its feasibilities in beam deflector, light focusing and broadband meta-hologram in visible spectrum. Considering an ultra-thin thin film interference system, a sandwich structure, composed of air, a lossy material layer and a metallic mirror, the reflection of this system can be regarded as the linear superposition of the partial reflections from first interface and from the cavity after several roundtrips. First, we calculate the phases and reflections of various thicknesses of amorphous silicon (a-Si) on top of aluminum layer under normal illumination of an unpolarized light in the wavelength region from 400 to 850nm. 2 π phase coverage can be achieved by changing the film thickness of a-Si within 50 nanometers. We select two thicknesses (2-level phase modulation) for the demonstration of meta-devices. The ultra-flat grating metasurface for beam steering are designed. The reflection angles of grating metasurface can be modulated by changing its period, while the specular reflection is inhibited. We further demonstrate computer-generated holograms (CGH) based on ultra-thin interference metasurface. The holographic images are reconstructed by the combinations of phase- and amplitude- modulation. These devices show the great potential and CMOS-compatibility in the application of optics, display, security printing, and metasurface-based optical storage system.
Selective excitation of specific multipolar resonances in matter can be of great utility in understanding the internal make-up of the underlying material and, as a result, in developing novel nanophotonic devices. Many efforts have been addressed on this topic. For example, the emission spectra related to the different multipolar transitions of trivalent europium can be modulated by changing the thickness of the dielectric spacer between the gold mirror and the fluorescent layer. In this talk, we reported the results about active control of the multipolar resonance in metadevices using the coherent control technique. In the coherent control spectroscopy system, the optical standing wave constructed from two counterpart propagation coherent beams is utilized as the excitation. By controlling the time delay between two ultrafast pulses to decide the location of metadivce as the electromagnetic field node or antinode node of standing wave, the absorption related to the specific multipolar resonance can be controlled. Using this technique, with the 30-nm-thick metadevice, the broadband controlling light with light without nonlinearity can be realized. The switching contrast ratios can be as high as 3:1 with a modulation bandwidth in excess of 2 THz. The active control of the high order and complex optical resonance related to the magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, and toroidal dipole in the metamaterial is reported as well. This research can be applied in the all ultrafast all-optical data processing and the active control of the resonances of metadevice with high order multipolar resonance.
Phase change materials are used as the recording layer in optical data storage, electronic storage and nanolithography due to the enormous physical difference between crystalline and amorphous states. In recent years, they are demonstrated to exploit in various tunable plasmonic devices, such as perfect absorber, planar lenses, plasmonic antenna, Fano resonance and so on. However, in these researches, the phase change material merely plays a role as a refractive index switchable substrate. In this paper, we study the intrinsic optical properties of phase change material Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) in the near-infrared regime. A clear insight into the dipole resonance system of GST is provided. The reflection phase retardation and intensity of each unit cells depending on the phase state and geometry are estimated. Further, we introduce the concept of reconfigurable gradient metasurface, which has different anomalous reflection angles by switching the combination of nanorods with different geometries and phase states. The research has great potential in the area of tunable metamaterial device (metadevice) in the future.
Conventional optical data storage such as digital versatile disc (DVD) and Blu-ray disc (BD), provide us inexpensive and compact media for satisfying information storage requirement for decades. As the knowledge and information increase rapidly, the requirement cannot be already satisfied by current data storage systems. As far as we know, the size of recording mark, the critical storage density indicator, depends on recording energy, writing strategies, opto-thermal threshold plane and thermal conductivity. Readout is limited by optical resolution limit, the wavelength of readout laser and numerical aperture (N.A.) of objective lens. In this talk, I will introduce several means to increase the optical storage density. A powerful tool, conductive-tip atomic force microscopy (C-AFM), with the advantages of high spatial resolution, high contrast of conductivity and non-destructive method to help us better understand the formation of recording marks is also presented. Finally, I will show our recent efforts on realizing the extreme of recording mark.
The scattering of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waves can be manipulated by various plasmonic structures. The plasmonic structure composed of arranged subwavelength nanobumps on a gold thin film is the promising structure to manipulation SPP wave. By controlling the geometric shape of the structures, the height, position, and pattern of scattered light from SPP wave can be modulated as desired. A clear single focusing spot can be reconstructed at a specific altitude by a particular curved structure with appropriate curvature and adjacent interspacing of nanobumps. The designed light patterns reconstructed by the focusing spot from the arranged curved structures at a specific observation plane are clearly demonstrated.
Nanobump structures are fabricated on the gold thin film by femtosecond laser direct writing (fs-LDW) technique. The
height and diameter of the gold nanobump are about 30nm, and 400 nm, respectively. The scattering light of surface
plasmon wave radiated from a nanobump is observed using a total internal reflection microscopy. A quarter-circle
structure composed of nanobumps is designed and produced to manipulate scattering light into specific pattern: The
focusing and diverging of the quarter circular structure in three dimensional space are demonstrated. The polarization
properties of focusing spot are also examined.
3D-FDTD is used to compute the electromagnetic response of various plasmonic nanostructures. Results of
computation and simulation are used to design the contact area of the photo-catalytic reactors. Novel nano-fabrication
techniques are developed to implement large surface area of plasmonic nanostructures for photo-catalytic reactors.
Measurement and analysis of the photo-catalytic process happened in the newly designed photo-chemical reactors clearly
demonstrate better efficiency of some photo-catalytic chemical process such as the decomposition of the Methyl Orange
to carbon dioxide and water.