A resonant wavelength detection system based on a gradient grating period guided-mode resonance (GGP-GMR) filter and a linear charge-coupled device is demonstrated. The GGP-GMR used in this work consists of a subwavelength grating structure with a grating period varying from 250–550 nm in increments of 2 nm. We successfully demonstrate that by using this system, we can monitor the shift in a biosensor’s dip wavelength caused by different sucrose concentrations. This technology has the potential to replace a bulky and expensive spectrometer used in most optical biosensor systems. Given its compactness, the system can be integrated with lab-on-a-chip systems for numerous biosensing applications.
In this study, we designed, fabricated and demonstrated a compact wavelength detection system based on a gradient grating period guided-mode resonance filter (GGP-GMRF) mounted on a linear charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The GGPGMRF was first fabricated through nanoreplica molding on a plastic substrate, followed by the deposition of a thin TiO<sub>2</sub> film. The grating periods of the GGP-GMRF vary from 250 to 550 nm with a 2 nm increment in each period consisting of 100 cycles. The results show that a 6 mm long GGP-GMRF has a filtering range of 506 to 915 nm. Upon illumination, the GGP-GMRF reflects a particular wavelength of light resulting in the minimum transmission of that wavelength. Hence, the GGP-GMRF provides a spatially dependent minimum transmission depending on the wavelength of the incident light. The linear CCD underneath the GGP-GMRF measures the transmitted intensity, and the wavelength of the incident light can be correlated with the location of the minimum intensity. For the demonstrated GGP-GMRF and CCD system, a spectral resolution of 1 nm can be achieved.