Visibility data have long needed to traffic meteorological monitoring and warning system, but visibility data have monitored with expensive special equipment. Visibility degradation in fog is due to the light scattering of fog droplets, which are transit from aerosols via activation. Considering strong correlation between PM2.5 (Particulate matter with diameters less than 2.5μm) mass concentration and visibility, regression models can be useful tools for retrieving visibility data from available PM2.5 data. In this study, PM2.5 is measured by low cost and commercial equipment. The results of experiment indicate that relative humidity is the key factor to impact accuracy correlation between PM2.5 and visibility, the strongest correlation locates in the RH (<60%). Results of the studies suggest that visibility decreases with increases of PM2.5 mass concentration; however, it has been found the decrease rate tapers off gradually. In order to capture the real-time visibility data, to grasp the process of low visibility events, the design of remote monitoring system is put forward. Using the GPRS network to link to cloud as a server, proposed the Arduino as the controller, design and implements a wireless serial acquisition and control system based LabVIEW and Arduino, this system can achieve the function of real-time synchronization Web publishing. The result of the test indicates that this system has typical characteristics of friendly interface, high levels of reliability and expansibility, moreover it can retrieve visibility data from available PM2.5 data that can easy to access by low-cost sensor along the highway.
In order to resolve the disturbance of external perturbation in Weight-In-Motion (WIM) measurement by traditional methods, a novel pressure sensor for WIM of vehicles based on fiber ring-down spectroscopy is proposed here. A micro-bending sensing head is designed and its working principle is discussed in this paper. The fiber loop ring-down (FLRD) system reveals that the sensing forces applied to the sensing head can be obtained by measuring the ring-down time. Meanwhile, the velocity of vehicles is measured by analyzing two ring-down spectrums in this scheme. Experiment results show that the precision of velocity of vehicles is good and the sensor has a linear response to the applied force.
A fiber-optic sensing scheme of measuring pressure is described here. The high reflective mirror in a laser cavity is replaced by a Sagnac loop in this scheme. The method combining the Sagnac effect with fiber loop ringdown technology fully embodies the advantages of both. The working principle is discussed in detail, and the whole sensing performance is demonstrated by applying sensing force to the sensor area. The sensing force can be obtained by measuring the ringdown time. The pressure measurement range of this device is 40 to 350 N. The detection sensitivity 0.4 ns/N can be realized in this system. The experimental curve reveals a close relationship between the sensing strain and the ringdown time.
Researches indicate that foggy weather is one of the most critical factors that restrict human’s traffic activities and cause traffic accidents. It will reduce the visibility of traffic message board, which could cause the insecurity of transportation. Commonly, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were used as light source for variable message sign, which could not be seen clearly in the foggy low visibility condition. A high-brightness light source which could be used for variable information board was firstly put forward in this paper. And a new type of variable message sign used in low visibility condition was also introduced. Besides, the attenuation characteristics of laser diode (LD) and light-emitting diode (LED) were analyzed respectively. Calculation and simulation show that the attenuation of red light source is fastest, and the yellow LED light has the better transmittance property. In the experiment, LDs were used to make variable message board for verifying image definition. A 16*16 array structure composed of LDs was designed and could display Chinese characters. By comparing the display effect of LDs and LEDs driven with same power, they were placed in fog chamber of the visibility less than 5 meters. And experiment results show that the penetrability of red LD light is better than that of red LED. So traffic variable message sign based on LDs could improve the image definition and the information could be seen more clearly in the foggy weather. In addition to the high-brightness, good coherence, good direction, experimental results show that traffic variable message board based on LD has better visual effect in low visibility condition.
In a photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) ultrawideband (UWB) array system, optical fiber bundles with several hundreds or more fibers are employed to distribute laser beam energy and yield multiple laser beams with the same energy and coherence. Ideally, if each fiber of the bundle is the same length, the laser beams transmit in the fiber and may arrive to the PCSS simultaneously in the UWB array system. In this work, the coupling rate of the fiber bundle is estimated. The experimental result of dividing laser energy shows that multiple lasers can be obtained by using a fiber bundle. Specifically, the experiments on the 17-PCSS antenna array radiation indicate that the pulses generated by PCSS give up only several picoseconds of time jitters, thus demonstrating that laser distribution by fiber bundle can be used for UWB coherent combination.
Two common approaches to generate ultra-short electromagnetic pulse are presented in this paper. One is that using a
high-speed avalanche transistor and another is that using a laser triggering photoconductive semiconductor switch
(PCSS). An ultra-short electromagnetic pulse with the rise time of 190 picosecond (ps), the pulse duration of 290 ps and
the amplitude of 2.2 kV, is radiated by an ultra-wide band (UWB) antenna. It is noted that the ultra-wide frequency
spectrum provided by the ultra-short electromagnetic pulses with duration of picosecond can be used to distinguish
different targets. The radiated pulse would transmit and be reflected by various targets within the detection range. By
analyzing the reflected signal, the corresponding reflection material can be discerned. The experiment is set up to
distinguish the iron metal and concrete wall respectively. The results show that such ultra-short pulse technology has an
excellent ability to distinguish objects.
In this article different experiments are carried out to exam some key elements that influence the performance of PCSS
(Photoconductive semiconductor switches). The experiments include the bias voltage over the switch, the trigger pulse
energy and position. From the results we got the relationship among the elements and the output impulses. The bias
voltage controls the output linearly; the rise of trigger energy increase the export voltage but when the energy get over
280μJ this trend slow down and the export voltage go to a fixed value; different positions change the export voltage and
the peak value appears at the area near the cathode. The results were analyzed and explanations were given. From the
discussion we give the evidences in helping to explain the linear mode, and point out an efficient way to use the laser
energy for PCSS. Some tests methods are introduced and will be done in the future.