We develop a general framework for disparity manipulation and morphing for stereo images and video. The framework
consists of three parts: disparity map generation, disparity map manipulating/editing, and stereo image synthesis. We
first discuss disparity map generation techniques for different original input data types, including monoscopic images,
monoscopic video, stereo image pairs, and stereo video. Then, we describe three methods for user manipulation of the disparity map. In the first, the user employs an interactive object-selecting tool by inputting seed points near the desired object boundary. Given the selected objects, the user defines input-output disparity mapping curves for each object. In the second method, the user arbitrary manipulates a 3D disparity surface and our system calculates the new 3D surface after the user editing. A third method provides conversions between the two common stereo camera capture setups: "toein" and "off-axis" (we present their mathematical description). We show several morphed disparity map examples for each disparity manipulation method. Finally, we describe disparity-based image rendering to synthesize new stereo image pairs from given original stereo image pairs based on a morphed disparity map. The synthesis method includes image warping, data-filling and disparity map smoothing procedures.
The goal of this research is to compare the performance of different stereoscopic displays and tracking/interaction
devices in the context of motor behavior and interaction quality within various Virtual Reality (VR) environments.
Participants were given a series of VR tasks requiring motor behaviors with different degrees of freedom. The VR tasks
were performed using a monoscopic display and two stereoscopic displays (shutter glasses and autostereoscopic display)
and two tracking devices (optical and magnetic). The two 3D tracking/ interaction devices were used to capture
continuous 3D spatial hand position with time stamps. Participants completed questionnaires evaluating display comfort
and simulation fidelity among the three displays and the efficiency of the two interaction devices. The trajectory of
motion was reconstructed from the tracking data to investigate the user's motor behavior. Results provide information
on how stereoscopic displays can affect human motor behavior and interaction modes during VR tasks. These
preliminary results suggest that the use of shutter glasses provides a more immersive and user-friendly display than
autostereoscopic displays. Results also suggest that the optical tracking device, available at a fraction of the cost of the
magnetic tracker, provides similar results for users in terms of functionality and usability features.
We want to create realistic immersive personal virtual environments using stereo panoramas. We explore methods to
adjust the disparity of stereoscopic images to lie within an acceptable range for human viewers and provide a
comfortable stereo viewing experience. Peleg et al described a disparity adjusting method which modifies the disparity
of selected objects but also the columns including the object.
In this paper, we develop a human interactive object-based tool to adjust selectively the horizontal disparity in stereo
panoramas. It enhances or reduces the stereo visual effect for selected 2D object regions without changing the
disparities of other regions in the image. Our interactive object-selecting tool is based on the mean-shift segmentation
method. The object presented in either a left or right image is selected by user's inputting seed points near the desired
object boundary, and object contours both in left and right image are automatically found by our object-selecting
algorithm. The complete interactive disparity-adjusting tool allows the user to select the object either from manual input
using a cursor, or by defining an area with a certain distance range, with the ability to observe the results immediately
on an autostereoscopic display or other stereo display.
We describe techniques for stereo panoramic image capture and rendering that are part of a personal panoramic virtual environment system. We examine the use of stereo shutter-glasses and several recently developed autostereoscopic (AS) displays to improve the sense of immersion. The stereo panorama pair is created by stitching strips that are sampled from images captured with swing camera panoramic imaging system. We apply Peleg's disparity adjustment algorithm to the generated stereo panorama to achieve large disparity (horizontal parallax) of far away scenes and smaller disparity of closer scenes for stereo perception. Unfortunately, vertical parallax effects in the stereo panorama still occur, causing display artifacts and problems in human stereo fusion.
To overcome these problems, we first present a general image capture model, specify geometrical parameters, and describe the panorama generating process. We then describe an efficient stitching algorithm that corrects dynamic exposure variation and removes moving objects without manual selection of ground-truth images. We present expressions for the horizontal and vertical parallax, describe parallax measurement techniques, and develop an adaptive vertical and horizontal parallax control algorithm for rendering in different viewing directions. We present a simple subjective test of stereo panoramas rendered on AS and other stereo displays, and discuss the relative quality of each.