KEYWORDS: Kinematics, 3D modeling, Numerical analysis, Cameras, 3D image processing, 3D image reconstruction, Optical engineering, Filtering (signal processing), Reconstruction algorithms, RGB color model
We propose a real-time pose estimation method that addresses the weaknesses of the numerical inverse kinematics method. Using conventional inverse kinematics based on the numerical method requires many iterations; moreover, a singularity in the Jacobian matrix as well as a local minimum problem can occur. To solve these problems, we propose an inverse kinematics method combined with an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) to recover intermediate joint information. Because the numerical inverse kinematics method optimizes a state, the solution can often converge to the local minimum and require many iterations. We use several sigma points for analysis to find the optimum state by using an unscented transform. The improved method using a UKF converges faster than the numerical inverse kinematics method for the global minimum of the existing inverse kinematics. We use 2-D image processes to extract body areas from the input images, and a 3-D reconstruction algorithm is used to estimate the 3-D positions of the extracted human body area. Using the improved method, we generate intermediate joints for each body part and the results show that the proposed method reduces the computational complexity and increases the accuracy of estimation compared to conventional numerical inverse kinematics.
Liver segmentation is one of the most basic and important parts in computer-aided diagnosis for liver CT. Although various segmentation methods have been proposed for medical imaging, most of them generally do not perform well in segmenting the liver from CT images because of surface features of the liver and difficulty of discrimination from other adjacent organs. In this paper, we propose a new scheme for automatic segmentation of the liver in CT images. The pro-posed scheme is carried out on region-of-interest (ROI) blocks that include regions of the liver with high probabilities. The ROI approach saves unnecessary computational loss in finding the accurate boundary of the liver. The proposed method utilizes the composition of morphological filters with a priori knowledge, such as the general location or the approximate intensity of the liver to detect the initial boundary of the liver. Then, we make the gradient image with the weight of an initial liver boundary and segment the liver region by using an immersion-based watershed algorithm in the gradient image. Finally, a refining process is carried out to acquire a more accurate liver region.
In this paper, we describe an algorithm which can automatically recognize human gesture in a sequence of natural video image by utilizing two dimensional features extracted from bodily region of the images. In the algorithm, we first construct a gesture model space by analyzing the statistical information of sample images with principle component analysis method. And then, input images are compared to the model and individually symbolized to one part of the model space. In the last step, the symbolized images are recognized with HMM as one of model gestures. The feature of our method is to use a combination of partial and global information of two-dimensional abstract bodily motion, consequently it is very convenient to apply to real world situation and the recognition results are very robust.