We present a simple yet robust way to fabricate mono-dispersed gas-in-oil-in-water (G/O/W) double emulsions in a non-planar microfluidic device. The microfluidic device is composed of two pieces of chip which make the non-planar structure in microchannel be implemented. By manipulating the flow rate of each phase, the structure of the microbubbles can be tuned. This approach is also valid to the generation of G/W/O double emulsions.
In this paper we consider the dynamic modelling of compliant micropositioning mechanisms using flexure hinges. A simple modelling method is presented that is particularly useful for modelling parallel micropositioning mechanisms. This method is based upon linearisation of the geometric constraint equations of the compliant mechanism. This results in a linear kinematic model, a constant Jacobian and linear dynamic model. To demonstrate the computational simplicity of this methodology it is applied to a four-bar linkage using flexure hinges. Comparisons are made between the simple dynamic model and a complete non-linear model derived using the Lagrangian method. The investigation reveals that this new model is accurate yet computationally efficient and simple to use. The method is then further applied to a parallel 3-degree of freedom (dof) mechanism. It is shown that the method can be simply applied to this more complex parallel mechanism. A dynamic model of this mechanism is desired for use in optimal design and for controller design.
Micromanipulation has enabled numerous technological breakthroughs in recent years, from advances in biotechnology to micro-component assembly. Micromanipulators commonly use piezoelectric actuators (PZT) and a compliant mechanism to provide fine motions with position resolution in the nanometre or even sub-nanometre range. Parallel compliant mechanisms are used to provide motion with multiple degrees-of-freedom (DOF) as parallel mechanisms provide greater rigidity and positioning accuracy than serial mechanisms. However, parallel mechanisms with multiple DOF often have dynamic behavior that is coupled, non-linear and highly complex. This leads to difficulties in modeling and controller design, often requiring sophisticated control techniques such as model-based or neural networks to provide fast, accurate control.
This paper presents the findings of an experimental study into the dynamics of a particular 3 DOF compliant mechanism, specifically considering actuator-space coupling at a range of frequencies and poses. It was expected that the dynamics would be coupled as a dynamic model developed for this mechanism suggested this to be the case. However the experimental results reveal the surprising and useful finding that this mechanism possesses almost completely uncoupled dynamics for the operating bandwidth of the manipulator. This result simplifies the problem of controller design and suggests that the micromanipulator could be effectively controlled using simple independent joint control without requiring development of a decoupling controller.