Two important challenges in quantum photonics are to generate useful states with high fidelity, and to detect them and verify their properties. Particularly valuable states are single photons and entangled photon pairs in well-defined optical modes, as they can be used in many quantum information protocols or used to build up more complex states. For sources, we employ integrated nonlinear optics (waveguides in lithium niobite and potassium titanyl phosphate) to maximize brightness and go beyond what is possible in bulk optics, showing simultaneously high state fidelity, heralding efficiency, and spectral purity across three experiments: first we show record heralding efficiency in a fully-fibered heralded single-photon source, and use it to probe the tradeoff between spectral purity and heralding efficiency in non-engineered sources. With an engineered source, we then herald up to 50 photons in a nonclassical state. The last source is for polarization-entangled photon pairs, with brightness of 3.5 million pairs/s·mW, fidelity to a Bell state of 96%, heralding efficiency of 43%, and HOM interference visibility of 82%.
Once a complex state is constructed, it must also be verified. For this we employ a time-multiplexed detector consisting of a fibre loop and a single-photon detector. Surprisingly, we are able to extract information even in the saturation regime of the detector. We use the click statistics of the time-multiplexed detector to verify the non-classicality of quantum light, and we use its extremely high dynamic range (123 dB) to measure a macroscopic power level with a single-photon detector. Eliminating calibrated attenuators with this approach will allow direct standardization of quantum and classical optical power levels.