Snapshot Hyper-Spectral imaging systems are capable of capturing several spectral bands simultaneously, offering coregistered images of a target. With appropriate optics, these systems are potentially able to image blood cells in vivo as they flow through a vessel, eliminating the need for a blood draw and sample staining. Our group has evaluated the capability of a commercial Snapshot Hyper-Spectral imaging system, the Arrow system from Rebellion Photonics, in differentiating between white and red blood cells on unstained blood smear slides. We evaluated the imaging capabilities of this hyperspectral camera; attached to a microscope at varying objective powers and illumination intensity. Hyperspectral data consisting of 25, 443x313 hyperspectral bands with ~3nm spacing were captured over the range of 419 to 494nm. Open-source hyper-spectral data cube analysis tools, used primarily in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications, indicate that white blood cells features are most prominent in the 428-442nm band for blood samples viewed under 20x and 50x magnification over a varying range of illumination intensities. These images could potentially be used in subsequent automated white blood cell segmentation and counting algorithms for performing in vivo white blood cell counting.
In law enforcement and security applications, the acquisition of face images is critical in producing key trace
evidence for the successful identication of potential threats. In this work we, first, use a near infrared (NIR)
sensor designed with the capability to acquire images at middle-range stand-off distances at night. Then, we
determine the maximum stand-off distance where face recognition techniques can be utilized to efficiently recognize individuals at night at ranges from 30 to approximately 300 ft. The focus of the study is on establishing
the maximum capabilities of the mid-range sensor to acquire good quality face images necessary for recognition.
For the purpose of this study, a database in the visible (baseline) and NIR spectrum of 103 subjects is assembled
and used to illustrate the challenges associated with the problem. In order to perform matching studies, we use
multiple face recognition techniques and demonstrate that certain techniques are more robust in terms of recognition performance when using face images acquired at different distances. Experiments show that matching
NIR face images at longer ranges (i.e. greater than about 300 feet or 90 meters using our camera system) is a
very challenging problem and it requires further investigation.
Military personnel and first responders are in critical need of a sensitive technology for the rapid evaluation and diagnosis of exposure to adverse chemical agents. Ideally such a technology would be automated, easily portable, possess a high degree of sensitivity and specificity, and provide non-invasive assessment of health status. A potential method for meeting these requirements is via monitoring of ocular characteristics. Due to the interconnection between the eyes and the various physiological systems of the body, insults to the body may create a unique "thumbprint" upon the eyes based upon how these various physiological systems are differentially affected. In turn, these thumbprints (biomarkers) may be used to perform diagnostic evaluations of an individual’s health status. Based upon this principle, the Ocular Scanning Instrumentation (OSI) technology is being developed as an automated device for non-invasive monitoring of optically apparent characteristics and attributes of the eyes for in-the-field diagnosis of battlefield traumas, insults, and threat agent exposures. The current manuscript presents comparative data for two of the agents which we have evaluated, carbon monoxide and cyanide. The defined methods provide the required specificity and sensitivity needed for detecting exposures at time points which provide an ample therapeutic window for medical intervention.
The sensitivity of the eye’s reaction to a wide variety of chemicals/toxins and its role as a gauge for internal homeostasis (e.g., cardiovascular and neurophysiological imbalances) has been extensively researched via many scientific disciplines. New techniques and equipment are both harnessing and utilizing this information to define a modern approach to the field of non-invasive early detection of a vast range of physical abnormalities, injuries, and illnesses. Early detection provides an invaluable tool in the subsequent success of treating such conditions. The application of these techniques to the detection of exposure to chemical threat agents such as organophosphate nerve agents and cyanide provides an important advancement in the ability to limit the deleterious effects of these agents. The Ocular Scanning Instrumentation (OSI) technology involves the use of an automated device for the continuous or programmed monitoring of optically apparent characteristic(s) and attributes of the eye that may serve as an early-warning system for possible complications based upon generalized information obtained from ocular biomarkers. Described herein is the analysis of primary ocular biomarkers for organophosphate (miosis) and cyanide (venous blood coloration) exposure.