PURPOSE: The iKnife is a new surgical tool designed to aid in tumor resection procedures by providing enriched chemical feedback about the tumor resection cavity from electrosurgical vapors. We build and compare machine learning classifiers that are capable of distinguishing primary cancer from surrounding tissue at different stages of tumor progression. In developing our classification framework, we implement feature reduction and recognition tools that will assist in the translation of xenograft studies to clinical application and compare these tools to standard linear methods that have been previously demonstrated. METHODS: Two cohorts (n=6 each) of 12 week old female immunocompromised (Rag2−/−;Il2rg−/−) mice were injected with the same human breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cell line. At 4 and 6 weeks after cell injection, mice in each cohort were respectively euthanized, followed by iKnife burns performed on tumors and tissues prior to sample collection for future studies. A feature reduction technique that uses a neural network is compared to traditional linear analysis. For each method, we fit a classifier to distinguish primary cancer from surrounding tissue. RESULTS: Both classifiers can distinguish primary cancer from metastasis and surrounding tissue. The classifier that uses a neural network achieves an accuracy of 96.8% and the classifier without the neural network achieves an accuracy of 96%. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of these classifiers indicate that this device has the potential to offer real-time, intraoperative classification of tissue. This technology may be used to assist in intraoperative margin detection and inform surgical decisions to offer a better standard of care for cancer patients.
PURPOSE: Raman spectroscopy is an optical imaging technique used to characterize tissue via molecular analysis. The use of Raman spectroscopy for real-time intraoperative tissue classification requires fast analysis with minimal human intervention. In order to have accurate predictions and classifications, a large and reliable database of tissue classifications with spectra results is required. We have developed a system that can be used to generate an efficient scanning path for robotic scanning of tissues using Raman spectroscopy. METHODS: A camera mounted to a robotic controller is used to take an image of a tissue slide. The corners of the tissue slides within the sample image are identified, and the size of the slide is calculated. The image is cropped to fit the size of the slide and the image is manipulated to identify the tissue contour. A grid set to fit around the size of the tissue is calculated and a grid scanning pattern is generated. A masked image of the tissue contour is used to create a scanning pattern containing only the tissue. The tissue scanning pattern points are transformed to the robot controller coordinate system and used for robotic tissue scanning. The pattern is validated using spectroscopic scans of the tissue sample. The run time of the tissue scan pattern is compared to a region of interest scanning pattern encapsulating the tissue using the robotic controller. RESULTS: The average scanning time for the tissue scanning pattern compared to region of interest scanning reduced by 4 minutes and 58 seconds. CONCLUSION: This method reduced the number of points used for automated robotic scanning, and can be used to reduce scanning time and unusable data points to improve data collection efficiency.