The optical nonlinear effects can provide different advanced electromagnetic functionalities, such as wave mixing and phase conjugation, which can be applied in a variety of new applications. However, these effects usually suffer from extremely weak nature and require high input intensity values in order to be excited. Interestingly, the large third order nonlinearity of graphene, along with the strong field confinement stemming from its plasmonic behavior, can be utilized to enhance several relative weak nonlinear effects at infrared (IR) and terahertz (THz) frequencies. Towards this goal, various nonlinear graphene metasurfaces are presented in this work to effectively increase the efficiency of different optical nonlinear effects and, as a result, decrease the required input intensity needed to be excited. In particular, we will show that the efficiency of four-wave mixing (FWM) can be improved by several orders of magnitude by using a nonlinear metasurface composed of patterned graphene ribbons, a dielectric interlayer, and a metallic reflector acting as substrate. We also demonstrate that the self-phase modulation (SPM) nonlinear process can be enhanced by using an alternative graphene nonlinear metasurface, operating as coherent perfect absorber, leading to a pronounced shift in the resonant frequency of the coherent perfect absorption (CPA) effect of this structure as the input intensity of the impinging incident waves is increased. This property will provide a robust mechanism to dynamically tune and switch the CPA process. Furthermore, it will be presented that strong negative reflection and refraction can be achieved by a single graphene monolayer film due to the enhancement of another nonlinear process, known as phase conjugation. This nonlinear process is envisioned to be used in the construction of a perfect imaging device with subwavelength resolution.
We demonstrate a way to coherently control light at the nanoscale and achieve coherent perfect absorption (CPA) by using epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) plasmonic waveguides. The presented waveguides support an effective ENZ response at their cut-off frequency, combined with strong and homogeneous field enhancement along their nanochannels. The CPA conditions are perfectly satisfied at the ENZ frequency, surprisingly by a subwavelength plasmonic structure, resulting in strong CPA under the illumination of two counter-propagating plane waves with appropriate amplitudes and phases. In addition, we investigate the nonlinear response of the proposed ENZ plasmonic configuration as we increase the input intensity of the incident waves. We demonstrate that the CPA phenomenon can become both intensity- and phasedependent in this case leading to new tunable all-optical switching and absorption devices.
The investigation of hyperbolic metamaterials, shows that metal layers that are part of graphene structures, and also types I and II layered systems, are readily controlled. Since graphene is a nicely conducting sheet it can be easily managed. The literature only reveals a, limited, systematic, approach to the onset of nonlinearity, especially for the methodology based around the famous nonlinear Schrödinger equation [NLSE]. This presentation reveals nonlinear outcomes involving solitons sustained by the popular, and more straightforward to fabricate, type II hyperbolic metamaterials. The NLSE for type II metatamaterials is developed and nonlinear, non-stationary diffraction and dispersion in such important, and active, planar hyperbolic metamaterials is developed. For rogue waves in metamaterials only a few recent numerical studies exist. The basic model assumes a uniform background to which is added a time-evolving perturbation in order to witness the growth of nonlinear waves out of nowhere. This is discussed here using a new NLSE appropriate to hyperbolic metamaterials that would normally produce temporal solitons. The main conclusion is that new pathways for rogue waves can emerge in the form of Peregrine solitons (and near-Peregrines) within a nonlinear hyperbolic metamaterial, based upon double negative guidelines, and where, potentially, magnetooptic control could be practically exerted.
The concept of broadband extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through metallic gratings at the plasmonic Brewster
angle has recently been introduced. It is based on the ultrabroadband impedance matching between guided modes
supported by ultranarrow slits in a one-dimensional (1D) metallic grating and an incident transverse magnetic (TM)
wave. The overall mechanism results in total transmission through such a corrugated plasmonic screen. This concept was
first demonstrated in 1D metallic gratings and it can also be extended to two-dimensional (2D) periodic metallic gratings
made by either multiple rectangular or cylindrical rods. In this contribution, we review this concept and we demonstrate
that this phenomenon can be applied to semiconductor gratings, whose materials have plasmonic properties at THz
frequencies. This may open several opportunities to develop low-loss, broadband optical metamaterials for energy
harvesting and concentrators.
In this paper, we discuss anomalous and enhanced nonlinear effects available when combining nonlinear optical
materials with plasmonic metamaterials. Narrow periodic apertures filled with Kerr nonlinear materials are carved in a
plasmonic screen. Large field enhancement confined inside each slit may be obtained, in particular when we operate at
the cut-off of this array of plasmonic channels. This ensures a significant boosting of nonlinear optical effects, leading to
strong optical bistable performance. New exciting venues for applications are opened with the aforementioned novel