High resolution topography, by involving Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) and further accurate techniques for a proper displacement identification, is a valuable tool for a good and reliable description of unstable slopes. By comparing multitemporal surveys, the geomorphology of a landslide may be analyzed as well as the changes over time, the volumes transportation and the boundaries evolution. Being aware that a single technique is not sufficient to perform a reliable and accurate survey, this paper discusses the use of multi-platform, multi-source and multi-scale observations (both in terms of spatial scale and time scale) for the study and monitoring of unstable slopes. The final purpose is to highlight and validate a methodology based on multiple sensors and data integration, useful to obtain a comprehensive GIS (Geographic Information System) which can successfully be used to manage natural disasters or to improve the knowledge of a specific phenomenon in order to prevent and mitigate the hydro-geological risk. The novelty of the present research lies in the spatial integration of multiple remote sensing techniques such as: integration of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) to provide a comprehensive and accurate surface description (DTM) at a fixed epoch (spatial continuity); continuous monitoring by means of spatial integration of Automated Total Station (ATS) and GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) to provide accurate surface displacement identification (time continuity). Discussion makes reference to a rockslide located in the northern Apennines of Italy from 2010 to 2013.
Proc. SPIE. 9245, Earth Resources and Environmental Remote Sensing/GIS Applications V
KEYWORDS: Unmanned aerial vehicles, 3D acquisition, Data modeling, Image processing, 3D modeling, Satellite navigation systems, Geographic information systems, Orthophoto maps, Associative arrays, 3D image processing
The proposed work concerns the analysis of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), also known as drones, UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) or UAS (Unmanned Aerial System), on hydrogeological contexts for civil protection purposes, underlying the advantages of using a flexible and relatively low cost system. The capabilities of photogrammetric RPAS multi-sensors platform were examined in term of mapping, creation of orthophotos, 3D models generation, data integration into a 3D GIS (Geographic Information System) and validation through independent techniques such as GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). The RPAS used (multirotor OktoXL, of the Mikrokopter) was equipped with a GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver, digital cameras for photos and videos, an inertial navigation system, a radio device for communication and telemetry, etc. This innovative way of viewing and understanding the environment showed huge potentialities for the study of the territory, and due to its characteristics could be well integrated with aircraft surveys. However, such characteristics seem to give priority to local applications for rigorous and accurate analysis, while it remains a means of expeditious investigation for more extended areas. According to civil protection purposes, the experimentation was carried out by simulating operational protocols, for example for inspection, surveillance, monitoring, land mapping, georeferencing methods (with or without Ground Control Points - GCP) based on high resolution topography (2D and 3D information).